Abstract

We describe depth-resolved microscopy of cortical hemodynamics with high-speed spectral/Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Stimulus-evoked changes in blood vessel diameter, flow, and total hemoglobin were measured in the rat somatosensory cortex. The results show OCT measurements of hemodynamic changes during functional activation and represent an important step toward understanding functional hyperemia at the microscopic level.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, L. Ruvinskaya, A. Devor, D. A. Boas, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Neurosci. Methods 178, 162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, Opt. Express 15, 4083 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2004

2003

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Homma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Methods 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

B. M. Ances, J. H. Greenberg, and J. A. Detre, Neuroimage 10, 716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

A. Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

D. Y. Tso, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, Science 249, 417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, Physiol. Rev. 68, 1285 (1988).
[PubMed]

1985

C. Kasai, K. Namekawa, A. Koyano, and R. Omoto, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. 32, 458 (1985).

1981

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M. C. G.

Aguirre, A. D.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, L. Ruvinskaya, A. Devor, D. A. Boas, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Neurosci. Methods 178, 162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ances, B. M.

B. M. Ances, J. H. Greenberg, and J. A. Detre, Neuroimage 10, 716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, L. Ruvinskaya, A. Devor, D. A. Boas, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Neurosci. Methods 178, 162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briers, J. D.

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, L. Ruvinskaya, A. Devor, D. A. Boas, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Neurosci. Methods 178, 162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cobb, M. J.

Dale, A. M.

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detre, J. A.

B. M. Ances, J. H. Greenberg, and J. A. Detre, Neuroimage 10, 716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devor, A.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, L. Ruvinskaya, A. Devor, D. A. Boas, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Neurosci. Methods 178, 162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Faber, D. J.

Fercher, A. F.

Frostig, R. D.

D. Y. Tso, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, Science 249, 417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, Physiol. Rev. 68, 1285 (1988).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, L. Ruvinskaya, A. Devor, D. A. Boas, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Neurosci. Methods 178, 162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, Opt. Lett. 31, 2308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

B. M. Ances, J. H. Greenberg, and J. A. Detre, Neuroimage 10, 716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grinvald, A.

D. Y. Tso, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, Science 249, 417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, Physiol. Rev. 68, 1285 (1988).
[PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S. R.

Helmchen, F.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hildesheim, R.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, Physiol. Rev. 68, 1285 (1988).
[PubMed]

Hillman, E. M.

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Homma, R.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Homma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Methods 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Jacques, S. L.

Kadono, H.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Homma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Methods 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, C.

C. Kasai, K. Namekawa, A. Koyano, and R. Omoto, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. 32, 458 (1985).

Kleinfeld, D.

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koyano, A.

C. Kasai, K. Namekawa, A. Koyano, and R. Omoto, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. 32, 458 (1985).

Leitgeb, R.

Li, X.

Lieke, E.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, Physiol. Rev. 68, 1285 (1988).
[PubMed]

Lieke, E. E.

D. Y. Tso, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, Science 249, 417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

MacDonald, D. J.

Maheswari, R. U.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Homma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Methods 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitra, P. P.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namekawa, K.

C. Kasai, K. Namekawa, A. Koyano, and R. Omoto, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. 32, 458 (1985).

Narayanan, S. N.

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, N.

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omoto, R.

C. Kasai, K. Namekawa, A. Koyano, and R. Omoto, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. 32, 458 (1985).

Ren, H.

Ruvinskaya, L.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, L. Ruvinskaya, A. Devor, D. A. Boas, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Neurosci. Methods 178, 162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Sun, T.

Takaoka, H.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Homma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Methods 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanifuji, M.

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Homma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Methods 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, I. C.

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, P.

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tso, D. Y.

D. Y. Tso, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, Science 249, 417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ulbert, I.

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Meer, F. J.

Villringer, A.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wojtkowski, M.

IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason.

C. Kasai, K. Namekawa, A. Koyano, and R. Omoto, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. 32, 458 (1985).

J. Neurosci.

A. Devor, P. Tian, N. Nishimura, I. C. Teng, E. M. Hillman, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, D. Kleinfeld, and A. M. Dale, J. Neurosci. 27, 4452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods

R. U. Maheswari, H. Takaoka, H. Kadono, R. Homma, and M. Tanifuji, J. Neurosci. Methods 124, 83 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, L. Ruvinskaya, A. Devor, D. A. Boas, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Neurosci. Methods 178, 162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage

B. M. Ances, J. H. Greenberg, and J. A. Detre, Neuroimage 10, 716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Physiol. Rev.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, Physiol. Rev. 68, 1285 (1988).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Y. Tso, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, Science 249, 417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Differential OISI image at peak activation, (B) Doppler OCT image at baseline with cortical surface indicated by a white line, (C) Doppler OCT flow changes over selected regions of interest.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Doppler OCT velocity image of an arteriole at baseline (above) and during peak activation (below). (B) Relative flow, velocity, and diameter time courses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction coefficient change measured by OCT shows a time course that resembles total hemoglobin. (A) OCT amplitude image on a logarithmic scale, showing a region of interest (ROI) in a capillary bed, and a draining vein (V) near the region of interest. (B) Profile of the natural logarithm of OCT amplitude versus depth, before the stimulus (dotted line) and during peak activation (solid line). (C) Profile of difference between peak activation and baseline, with standard errors and linear fit. (D) Time courses of Δ μ t measured by OCT (solid curve), flow in the draining vein measured by OCT (dashed curve), and ΔHbT measured by OISI (dotted curve).

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