Abstract

We present a method to fabricate graded-index multimode polymer optical fibers doped with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Such fiber structures provide the means to fully utilize the exceptional optical properties of the CNTs. The core region of the fiber is composed of CNTs and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with the addition of diphenyl sulfide (DPS), which acts as the dispersion stabilizer of CNTs in PMMA as well as the dopant to increase the refractive index of the core. Utilizing 2.5cm of the fiber as a saturable absorber, passively mode-locked lasing with duration of 3.0ps and repetition rate of 30.3MHz was demonstrated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.
  4. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA4.
    [PubMed]
  5. K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA5.
    [PubMed]
  6. K. K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and Y. W. Song, Opt. Express 17, 7664 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081125 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.
  10. A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y. W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, Opt. Express 16, 11337 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1686 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chow, K. K.

Goh, C. S.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA5.
[PubMed]

Horibe, A.

T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y. W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, Opt. Express 16, 11337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, H.

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

Itatani, T.

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

Itoga, E.

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

Jablonski, M.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Kaji, R.

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

Kashiwagi, K.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA5.
[PubMed]

Kataura, H.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

Kikuchi, K.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Koike, Y.

T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

Mori, M.

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

Morimune, K.

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nihei, E.

T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oomuro, T.

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

Raravikar, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Sakakibara, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Set, S. Y.

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA5.
[PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA4.
[PubMed]

Song, Y. W.

K. K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and Y. W. Song, Opt. Express 17, 7664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y. W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, Opt. Express 16, 11337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA4.
[PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Tokumoto, M.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Uchida, S.

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yaguchi, H.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA5.
[PubMed]

Yamashita, M.

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

Yamashita, S.

K. K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and Y. W. Song, Opt. Express 17, 7664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y. W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, Opt. Express 16, 11337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA5.
[PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA4.
[PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA4.
[PubMed]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMA5.
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross sections of the obtained POFs doped with different CNT concentrations: (a) 0 ppm , (b) 15 ppm , (c) 25 ppm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index profiles of the obtained POFs measured on the horizontal axis. Inset, interference fringe pattern observed from the POF shown in Fig. 1b.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NFPs from the obtained POFs with a length of 2.5 cm . Inset, NFP image observed from fiber (b) in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NFPs from three CNT-doped slabs with thicknesses of 1 mm , 1.5 cm , and 2.5 cm . Inset, NFP image observed from the 1.5 - cm -thick slab.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Autocorrelator trace of the laser output. Inset, passively mode-locked laser configuration. SM, single-mode. (b) Optical spectrum of the laser output. Inset, pulse train of the laser output.

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