Abstract

We present an optical, noninvasive and label-free approach to characterize flow profiles in microfluidic devices. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signals were used to map the mass transport in a microfluidic device that was then related back to the local flow rate of dilute solutes having constant fluid properties. Flow characterization was demonstrated in two common types of microfluidic devices, polydimethylsiloxane/glass square channels and wet-etched glass tapered channels.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. J. de Mello, Nature 422, 28 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Leung, R. F. Winkle, R. C. R. Wooton, and A. J. de Mello, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 46 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Pan, Z. Ganim, J. Kim, M. Verhoeven, J. Lugtenburg, and R. Mathies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4857 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Fletcher, S. Haswell, and X. Zhang, Electrophoresis 24, 3239 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Araki, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, Anal. Sci. 22, 1283 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Wang, N. Bao, T. T. Le, C. Lu, and J. Cheng, Opt. Express 16, 5782 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. I. Petrov, R. Arora, A. Saha, R. D. Heathcote, S. Ravula, I. Brener, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 6442, 644209 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Schafer, J. A. Squier, J. van Maarseveen, D. Bonn, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 11592 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Sinton, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 1, 2 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Kinoshita, S. Kaneda, T. Fujii, and M. Oshima, Lab Chip 7, 338 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Chen, T. Horng, and W. Y. Tan, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2, 455 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. F. Ismagilov, A. D. Stroock, P. J. A. Kenis, G. Whitesides, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Schafer, E. A. Gibson, W. Amir, R. Erikson, J. Lawrence, T. Vestad, J. Squier, R. Jimenez, and D. W. M. Marr, Opt. Lett. 32, 2568 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Park, M. Lee, J. Choo, Y. Kim, E. K. Lee, D. J. Kim, and S. Lee, Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1172 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Salmon, A. Ajdari, P. Tabeling, L. Servant, D. Talaga, and M. Joanicot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 094106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, Electrophoresis 24, 3563 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. A. Rinia, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 4472-4479 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. M. Vartiainen, H. A. Rinia, M. Müller, and M. Bonn, Opt. Express 14, 3622 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

D. Schafer, J. A. Squier, J. van Maarseveen, D. Bonn, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 11592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, N. Bao, T. T. Le, C. Lu, and J. Cheng, Opt. Express 16, 5782 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Schafer, E. A. Gibson, W. Amir, R. Erikson, J. Lawrence, T. Vestad, J. Squier, R. Jimenez, and D. W. M. Marr, Opt. Lett. 32, 2568 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kinoshita, S. Kaneda, T. Fujii, and M. Oshima, Lab Chip 7, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Petrov, R. Arora, A. Saha, R. D. Heathcote, S. Ravula, I. Brener, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 6442, 644209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Araki, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, Anal. Sci. 22, 1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Chen, T. Horng, and W. Y. Tan, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2, 455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Rinia, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 4472-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Vartiainen, H. A. Rinia, M. Müller, and M. Bonn, Opt. Express 14, 3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Salmon, A. Ajdari, P. Tabeling, L. Servant, D. Talaga, and M. Joanicot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 094106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Leung, R. F. Winkle, R. C. R. Wooton, and A. J. de Mello, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sinton, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 1, 2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Park, M. Lee, J. Choo, Y. Kim, E. K. Lee, D. J. Kim, and S. Lee, Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1172 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, Electrophoresis 24, 3563 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. de Mello, Nature 422, 28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Fletcher, S. Haswell, and X. Zhang, Electrophoresis 24, 3239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. Pan, Z. Ganim, J. Kim, M. Verhoeven, J. Lugtenburg, and R. Mathies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4857 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. F. Ismagilov, A. D. Stroock, P. J. A. Kenis, G. Whitesides, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ajdari, A.

J. Salmon, A. Ajdari, P. Tabeling, L. Servant, D. Talaga, and M. Joanicot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 094106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amir, W.

Araki, T.

T. Araki, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, Anal. Sci. 22, 1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arora, R.

G. I. Petrov, R. Arora, A. Saha, R. D. Heathcote, S. Ravula, I. Brener, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 6442, 644209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bakajin, O.

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, N.

Bonn, D.

D. Schafer, J. A. Squier, J. van Maarseveen, D. Bonn, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 11592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

D. Schafer, J. A. Squier, J. van Maarseveen, D. Bonn, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 11592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Rinia, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 4472-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Vartiainen, H. A. Rinia, M. Müller, and M. Bonn, Opt. Express 14, 3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

G. I. Petrov, R. Arora, A. Saha, R. D. Heathcote, S. Ravula, I. Brener, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 6442, 644209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. M.

J. M. Chen, T. Horng, and W. Y. Tan, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2, 455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

Choo, J.

de Mello, A. J.

S. Leung, R. F. Winkle, R. C. R. Wooton, and A. J. de Mello, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. de Mello, Nature 422, 28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erikson, R.

Fletcher, P.

P. Fletcher, S. Haswell, and X. Zhang, Electrophoresis 24, 3239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, T.

H. Kinoshita, S. Kaneda, T. Fujii, and M. Oshima, Lab Chip 7, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganim, Z.

D. Pan, Z. Ganim, J. Kim, M. Verhoeven, J. Lugtenburg, and R. Mathies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4857 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, E. A.

Haswell, S.

P. Fletcher, S. Haswell, and X. Zhang, Electrophoresis 24, 3239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heathcote, R. D.

G. I. Petrov, R. Arora, A. Saha, R. D. Heathcote, S. Ravula, I. Brener, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 6442, 644209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hertzog, D. E.

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horng, T.

J. M. Chen, T. Horng, and W. Y. Tan, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2, 455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ismagilov, R. F.

R. F. Ismagilov, A. D. Stroock, P. J. A. Kenis, G. Whitesides, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jager, M.

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jimenez, R.

Joanicot, M.

J. Salmon, A. Ajdari, P. Tabeling, L. Servant, D. Talaga, and M. Joanicot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 094106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, S.

H. Kinoshita, S. Kaneda, T. Fujii, and M. Oshima, Lab Chip 7, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenis, P. J. A.

R. F. Ismagilov, A. D. Stroock, P. J. A. Kenis, G. Whitesides, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. J.

Kim, J.

D. Pan, Z. Ganim, J. Kim, M. Verhoeven, J. Lugtenburg, and R. Mathies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4857 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Kinoshita, H.

H. Kinoshita, S. Kaneda, T. Fujii, and M. Oshima, Lab Chip 7, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitamura, N.

T. Araki, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, Anal. Sci. 22, 1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, X.

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawrence, J.

Le, T. T.

Lee, E. K.

Lee, M.

Lee, S.

Leung, S.

S. Leung, R. F. Winkle, R. C. R. Wooton, and A. J. de Mello, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Lugtenburg, J.

D. Pan, Z. Ganim, J. Kim, M. Verhoeven, J. Lugtenburg, and R. Mathies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4857 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marr, D. W. M.

Mathies, R.

D. Pan, Z. Ganim, J. Kim, M. Verhoeven, J. Lugtenburg, and R. Mathies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4857 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michalet, X.

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

T. Araki, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, Anal. Sci. 22, 1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M.

D. Schafer, J. A. Squier, J. van Maarseveen, D. Bonn, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 11592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Rinia, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 4472-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Vartiainen, H. A. Rinia, M. Müller, and M. Bonn, Opt. Express 14, 3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oshima, M.

H. Kinoshita, S. Kaneda, T. Fujii, and M. Oshima, Lab Chip 7, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, D.

D. Pan, Z. Ganim, J. Kim, M. Verhoeven, J. Lugtenburg, and R. Mathies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4857 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, T.

Petrov, G. I.

G. I. Petrov, R. Arora, A. Saha, R. D. Heathcote, S. Ravula, I. Brener, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 6442, 644209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ravula, S.

G. I. Petrov, R. Arora, A. Saha, R. D. Heathcote, S. Ravula, I. Brener, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 6442, 644209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rinia, H. A.

Saha, A.

G. I. Petrov, R. Arora, A. Saha, R. D. Heathcote, S. Ravula, I. Brener, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 6442, 644209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, J.

J. Salmon, A. Ajdari, P. Tabeling, L. Servant, D. Talaga, and M. Joanicot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 094106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santiago, J. G.

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, D.

Servant, L.

J. Salmon, A. Ajdari, P. Tabeling, L. Servant, D. Talaga, and M. Joanicot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 094106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sia, S. K.

S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, Electrophoresis 24, 3563 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinton, D.

D. Sinton, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 1, 2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Squier, J. A.

D. Schafer, J. A. Squier, J. van Maarseveen, D. Bonn, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 11592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, H. A.

R. F. Ismagilov, A. D. Stroock, P. J. A. Kenis, G. Whitesides, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stroock, A. D.

R. F. Ismagilov, A. D. Stroock, P. J. A. Kenis, G. Whitesides, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tabeling, P.

J. Salmon, A. Ajdari, P. Tabeling, L. Servant, D. Talaga, and M. Joanicot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 094106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Talaga, D.

J. Salmon, A. Ajdari, P. Tabeling, L. Servant, D. Talaga, and M. Joanicot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 094106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W. Y.

J. M. Chen, T. Horng, and W. Y. Tan, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2, 455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, K.

T. Araki, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, Anal. Sci. 22, 1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Maarseveen, J.

D. Schafer, J. A. Squier, J. van Maarseveen, D. Bonn, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 11592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vartiainen, E. M.

Verhoeven, M.

D. Pan, Z. Ganim, J. Kim, M. Verhoeven, J. Lugtenburg, and R. Mathies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4857 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vestad, T.

Wang, H.

Weiss, S.

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G.

R. F. Ismagilov, A. D. Stroock, P. J. A. Kenis, G. Whitesides, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, Electrophoresis 24, 3563 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkle, R. F.

S. Leung, R. F. Winkle, R. C. R. Wooton, and A. J. de Mello, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wooton, R. C. R.

S. Leung, R. F. Winkle, R. C. R. Wooton, and A. J. de Mello, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. V.

G. I. Petrov, R. Arora, A. Saha, R. D. Heathcote, S. Ravula, I. Brener, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 6442, 644209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

P. Fletcher, S. Haswell, and X. Zhang, Electrophoresis 24, 3239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Sci.

T. Araki, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, Anal. Sci. 22, 1283 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.)

S. Leung, R. F. Winkle, R. C. R. Wooton, and A. J. de Mello, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 130, 46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. F. Ismagilov, A. D. Stroock, P. J. A. Kenis, G. Whitesides, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Salmon, A. Ajdari, P. Tabeling, L. Servant, D. Talaga, and M. Joanicot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 094106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Electrophoresis

S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, Electrophoresis 24, 3563 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Fletcher, S. Haswell, and X. Zhang, Electrophoresis 24, 3239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

D. Pan, Z. Ganim, J. Kim, M. Verhoeven, J. Lugtenburg, and R. Mathies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 4857 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schafer, J. A. Squier, J. van Maarseveen, D. Bonn, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 11592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B

H. A. Rinia, M. Bonn, and M. Müller, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 4472-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip

H. Kinoshita, S. Kaneda, T. Fujii, and M. Oshima, Lab Chip 7, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluid.

J. M. Chen, T. Horng, and W. Y. Tan, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2, 455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Sinton, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 1, 2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. J. de Mello, Nature 422, 28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

G. I. Petrov, R. Arora, A. Saha, R. D. Heathcote, S. Ravula, I. Brener, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 6442, 644209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample data set for the etched glass microfluidic. (a) Orientation of the three-inlet mixing geometry; (b) the relation between the width squared, w 2 , of the diffusion profile in y and the downstream position, x; (c) ethanol concentration line outs in y for several positions, x.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Illustration of the channel cross section for the PDMS/glass microfluidic and (b) the maximum local flow rate as a function of depth ( z ) where the solid curve is a simulation. (c) Illustration of the channel cross section for the etched glass microfluidic and (d) the maximum local flow rate as a function of depth where the solid curve is a simulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Sample data set showing the raw cars data: the quotient of the mCARS spectral intensity ( I CARS ) with the background spectral intensity ( I REF ) (upper curve) and the retrieved imaginary part of the third order susceptibility ( Im [ Х ( 3 ) ] ) (lower curve). (b) Strength of the ethanol resonance for five concentrations of ethanol in water: 20%, 14%, 10%, 6%, and 3%.

Equations (1)

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C ( y , t ) C 0 = 1 2 { 1 + erf [ y w ( t ) ] } ,

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