Abstract

We propose an orbital angular momentum (OAM) generator consisting of two conjugated electro-optic spiral phase plates with two longitudinal electrodes, which enables us to realize the electrically tunable generation of integer or noninteger optical vortices according to the input photon’s polarization. We demonstrate that such an OAM generator allows the electro-optic management of the multidimensional OAM vector states, and it would have potential applications in quantum information processing system.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Padgett and J. Courtial, Opt. Lett. 24, 430 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. F. Calvo and A. Picon, Opt. Lett. 32, 838 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Chen and W. She, Opt. Lett. 33, 696 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).
  11. J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coewinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, Optical Dislocations and Quantum Entanglement, Ph.D. dissertation (Leiden University, 2004).
  14. S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, Appl. Opt. 43, 688 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).
  16. S. J. van Enk and G. Nienhuis, Opt. Commun. 94, 147 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. B. Gotte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1723 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Leach, E. Yao, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 71 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. G. Drizhuk, V. G. Sidorov, D. V. Sidorov, and M. D. Shagalov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 23, 809 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. J. C. Spreeuw, Found. Phys. 28, 361 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Deng, H. Wang, and K. Wang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2517 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen and W. She, Opt. Lett. 33, 696 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Deng, H. Wang, and K. Wang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Calvo and A. Picon, Opt. Lett. 32, 838 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gotte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2002

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1998

R. J. C. Spreeuw, Found. Phys. 28, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. G. Drizhuk, V. G. Sidorov, D. V. Sidorov, and M. D. Shagalov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 23, 809 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coewinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. van Enk and G. Nienhuis, Opt. Commun. 94, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, S. M.

J. B. Gotte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, J. T.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bazhenov, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coewinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calvo, G. F.

Chen, L.

Chiu, D. T.

Y. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coewinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coewinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L.

Drizhuk, A. G.

A. G. Drizhuk, V. G. Sidorov, D. V. Sidorov, and M. D. Shagalov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 23, 809 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edgar, J. S.

Y. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliel, E. R.

Franke-Arnold, S.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gotte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gotte, J. B.

J. B. Gotte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hooft, G. W. 't

Jeffries, G. D. M.

Y. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kloosterboer, J. G.

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coewinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leach, J.

J. Leach, E. Yao, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGloin, D.

Y. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nienhuis, G.

S. J. van Enk and G. Nienhuis, Opt. Commun. 94, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oemrawsingh, S. S. R.

Padgett, M.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

J. Leach, E. Yao, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Padgett and J. Courtial, Opt. Lett. 24, 430 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picon, A.

Shagalov, M. D.

A. G. Drizhuk, V. G. Sidorov, D. V. Sidorov, and M. D. Shagalov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 23, 809 (1997).
[CrossRef]

She, W.

Sidorov, D. V.

A. G. Drizhuk, V. G. Sidorov, D. V. Sidorov, and M. D. Shagalov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 23, 809 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sidorov, V. G.

A. G. Drizhuk, V. G. Sidorov, D. V. Sidorov, and M. D. Shagalov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 23, 809 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

R. J. C. Spreeuw, Found. Phys. 28, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Veen, H. E. L. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Enk, S. J.

S. J. van Enk and G. Nienhuis, Opt. Commun. 94, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van Houwelingen, J. A. W.

Vasnetsov, M. V.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).

Verstegen, E. J. K.

Wang, H.

Wang, K.

Wei, T.-C.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, Appl. Opt. 43, 688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coewinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, E.

J. Leach, E. Yao, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

Zambrini, R.

J. B. Gotte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Found. Phys.

R. J. C. Spreeuw, Found. Phys. 28, 361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

J. B. Gotte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

JETP Lett.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).

Laser Photonics Rev.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

J. Leach, E. Yao, and M. J. Padgett, New J. Phys. 6, 71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coewinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. J. van Enk and G. Nienhuis, Opt. Commun. 94, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tech. Phys. Lett.

A. G. Drizhuk, V. G. Sidorov, D. V. Sidorov, and M. D. Shagalov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 23, 809 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, Optical Dislocations and Quantum Entanglement, Ph.D. dissertation (Leiden University, 2004).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the electrically tunable and spin-dependent integer and noninteger OAM generator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electro-optic management of multidimensional OAM states according to different input polarizations. (a) Horizontally linear polarization H , (b) vertically linear polarization V , (c) right-handed circular polarization R , and (d) general elliptically polarized state with α = π 3 and δ = π 4 .

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ H = ( φ SPP 1 ) H + ( φ SPP 2 ) H = k 0 n 0 l s Q π + Q ϕ ,
φ V = ( φ SPP 1 ) V + ( φ SPP 2 ) V = k 0 n 0 l s + Q π Q ϕ .
F ̂ Q = exp ( i k 0 n 0 l s ) [ exp ( i π Q ) H , m + Q H , m + exp ( i π Q ) V , m Q V , m ] .

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