Abstract

A precision laser spectrometer for the detection of CO2 isotopes is reported. The spectrometer measures the fundamental absorption signatures of C13 and C12 isotopes in CO2 at 4.32μm using a tunable mid-IR laser source based on difference-frequency generation. The spectrometer attains a precision of up to 0.02 for 150s of averaging. An overall accuracy of 0.05 was obtained when sampling various calibrated reference gases.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. M. L. Wigley and D. S. Schimel, eds., The Carbon Cycle (Wiley, 2005).
  2. J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 90, 301 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Vaughn, D. Ferretti, J. Miller, and J. White, in Handbook of Stable Isotope Analytical Techniques (Elsevier, 2004), Vol. 1, Chap. 14, 1248.
  6. S. M. Schaeffer, J. B. Miller, B. H. Vaughn, J. W. C. White, and D. R. Bowling, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5263 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Richter and P. Weibring, Appl. Phys. B 82, 479 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Richter, “Precision polarization optimized optical beam processor,” U.S. patent application 0217009 A1 (September 20, 2007).

2008 (2)

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 90, 301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Schaeffer, J. B. Miller, B. H. Vaughn, J. W. C. White, and D. R. Bowling, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Richter and P. Weibring, Appl. Phys. B 82, 479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bowling, D. R.

S. M. Schaeffer, J. B. Miller, B. H. Vaughn, J. W. C. White, and D. R. Bowling, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Emmenegger, L.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 90, 301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erdélyi, M.

M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferretti, D.

B. Vaughn, D. Ferretti, J. Miller, and J. White, in Handbook of Stable Isotope Analytical Techniques (Elsevier, 2004), Vol. 1, Chap. 14, 1248.

Herndon, S.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 90, 301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, R.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, C. E.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 90, 301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J.

B. Vaughn, D. Ferretti, J. Miller, and J. White, in Handbook of Stable Isotope Analytical Techniques (Elsevier, 2004), Vol. 1, Chap. 14, 1248.

Miller, J. B.

S. M. Schaeffer, J. B. Miller, B. H. Vaughn, J. W. C. White, and D. R. Bowling, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. D.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 90, 301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

D. Richter and P. Weibring, Appl. Phys. B 82, 479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, “Precision polarization optimized optical beam processor,” U.S. patent application 0217009 A1 (September 20, 2007).

Saleska, S.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaeffer, S. M.

S. M. Schaeffer, J. B. Miller, B. H. Vaughn, J. W. C. White, and D. R. Bowling, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schimel, D. S.

T. M. L. Wigley and D. S. Schimel, eds., The Carbon Cycle (Wiley, 2005).

Shorter, J.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tuzson, B.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 90, 301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, B.

B. Vaughn, D. Ferretti, J. Miller, and J. White, in Handbook of Stable Isotope Analytical Techniques (Elsevier, 2004), Vol. 1, Chap. 14, 1248.

Vaughn, B. H.

S. M. Schaeffer, J. B. Miller, B. H. Vaughn, J. W. C. White, and D. R. Bowling, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weibring, P.

D. Richter and P. Weibring, Appl. Phys. B 82, 479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

B. Vaughn, D. Ferretti, J. Miller, and J. White, in Handbook of Stable Isotope Analytical Techniques (Elsevier, 2004), Vol. 1, Chap. 14, 1248.

White, J. W. C.

S. M. Schaeffer, J. B. Miller, B. H. Vaughn, J. W. C. White, and D. R. Bowling, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wigley, T. M. L.

T. M. L. Wigley and D. S. Schimel, eds., The Carbon Cycle (Wiley, 2005).

Williams, L. R.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 90, 301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, S. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 90, 301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter and P. Weibring, Appl. Phys. B 82, 479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. M. Schaeffer, J. B. Miller, B. H. Vaughn, J. W. C. White, and D. R. Bowling, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 5263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, L. R. Williams, and C. E. Kolb, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 58, 2465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. M. L. Wigley and D. S. Schimel, eds., The Carbon Cycle (Wiley, 2005).

B. Vaughn, D. Ferretti, J. Miller, and J. White, in Handbook of Stable Isotope Analytical Techniques (Elsevier, 2004), Vol. 1, Chap. 14, 1248.

D. Richter, “Precision polarization optimized optical beam processor,” U.S. patent application 0217009 A1 (September 20, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gas sample inlet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Allan variance plot and corresponding time series.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

12 h continuous sampling of two calibrated sam ples. The sample and reference channels were averaged for 180 s , followed by 20 s of flushing time in which the gas flows were switched between the channels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement cycles of two calibrated samples.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Cylinder Comparison and Measured Deviations Compared to IRMS Values (DFG-IRMS)

Equations (1)

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δ 13 = { Slope 13 Slope 12 1 } × 1000 .

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