Abstract

We report the observation of anomalous behavior in the spectral sensitivity response in a specially designed waveguided interferometer sensor. Approaching a definite critical point, the sensitivity increases nonlinearly. Furthermore, at the critical wavelength a new effect of splitting or bifurcation of a minimum dip is observed. The value of the splitting is suggested as an advantageous measure for sensing.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. V. Lambeck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R93 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Slavík and J. Homola, Sens. Actuators B 123, 10 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Levy and S. Ruschin, Opt. Express 16, 20516 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Stepanov and S. Ruschin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5151 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Levy and S. Ruschin, Opt. Express 16, 20516 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

R. Slavík and J. Homola, Sens. Actuators B 123, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. V. Lambeck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Stepanov and S. Ruschin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

R. Slavík and J. Homola, Sens. Actuators B 123, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

P. V. Lambeck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levy, R.

Ruschin, S.

R. Levy and S. Ruschin, Opt. Express 16, 20516 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Stepanov and S. Ruschin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slavík, R.

R. Slavík and J. Homola, Sens. Actuators B 123, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S.

S. Stepanov and S. Ruschin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Stepanov and S. Ruschin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

P. V. Lambeck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Sens. Actuators B

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík and J. Homola, Sens. Actuators B 123, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mach–Zehnder interferometer structure fabricated in silicon waveguides. Schematic top view shows the interferometer with a difference in the width of the sensing and the reference arms of the waveguide. The shaded circle denotes the illumination spot of the device by an external visible laser. Scanning electron microscope pictures of the fabricated structure and enlargements of the sensing and reference channels are shown at the bottom.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensor output power for the scanned wavelength range without illumination [solid (blue online) curve] and with illumination [dashed (green online) curve]. Observe that the dips are pushed in opposite directions, away from the critical wavelength (around 1550 nm), and that the induced shift is significantly larger close to the central portion of the graph.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sensor output power for the scanned wavelength range before illumination [solid (blue online) curve] and after illumination [dashed (green online) curve]. The split of the dip at the critical working point (around 1550 nm) is clearly seen.

Equations (1)

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λ ( n eff 1 ( λ ) n eff 2 ( λ ) λ ) = 0.

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