Abstract

Microbolometers are modified by metallic resonant absorber elements, leading to an enhanced responsivity at selectable wavelengths. The dissipative energy absorption of tailored metamaterials allows for engineering the response of conventional bolometer microbridges. The absorption peak position and height are determined by the geometry of the metamaterial. Square-shaped metal/dielectric/metal stacks as absorber elements show spectral resonances at wavelengths between 4.8 and 7.0 μm in accordance with numerical simulations. Total peak absorptions of 0.8 are obtained. The metamaterial modified bolometers are suitable for multispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-IR and terahertz regime.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Such a system is currently marketed by Cedip Infrared Systems (FLIR), http://www.cedip-infrared.com.
  2. A. J. Syllaios and P. Chahal, international patent application WO2004/094969 A1 (April 6, 2004).
  3. F. J. Gonzáles, J. L. Porter, and G. D. Boreman, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 165 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. S. Weling, P. F. Henning, D. P. Neikirk, and S. Han, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061F (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, and G. Klimeck, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. E. Cole, R. E. Higashi, and R. A. Wood, Proc. IEEE 86, 1679 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Posch, D. Matolin, R. Wohlgenannt, T. Maier, and M. Litzenberger, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 654 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. W. Hsieh, C. Y. Chang, Y. S. Lee, C. W. Lin, and S. C. Hsu, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3645 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Klanjsek Gunde and M. Macek, Phys. Status Solidi A 183, 439 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, Jr., and C. A. Ward, Appl. Opt. 22, 1099 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, and M. Inokuti, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 369-406.

2009 (1)

C. Posch, D. Matolin, R. Wohlgenannt, T. Maier, and M. Litzenberger, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

F. J. Gonzáles, J. L. Porter, and G. D. Boreman, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 165 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Weling, P. F. Henning, D. P. Neikirk, and S. Han, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061F (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, and G. Klimeck, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Klanjsek Gunde and M. Macek, Phys. Status Solidi A 183, 439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. E. Cole, R. E. Higashi, and R. A. Wood, Proc. IEEE 86, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. W. Hsieh, C. Y. Chang, Y. S. Lee, C. W. Lin, and S. C. Hsu, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3645 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Alexander, R. W.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Boreman, G. D.

F. J. Gonzáles, J. L. Porter, and G. D. Boreman, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 165 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, and G. Klimeck, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chahal, P.

A. J. Syllaios and P. Chahal, international patent application WO2004/094969 A1 (April 6, 2004).

Chang, C. Y.

S. W. Hsieh, C. Y. Chang, Y. S. Lee, C. W. Lin, and S. C. Hsu, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3645 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, and G. Klimeck, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

B. E. Cole, R. E. Higashi, and R. A. Wood, Proc. IEEE 86, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, and G. Klimeck, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gonzáles, F. J.

F. J. Gonzáles, J. L. Porter, and G. D. Boreman, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 165 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

A. S. Weling, P. F. Henning, D. P. Neikirk, and S. Han, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henning, P. F.

A. S. Weling, P. F. Henning, D. P. Neikirk, and S. Han, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, R. E.

B. E. Cole, R. E. Higashi, and R. A. Wood, Proc. IEEE 86, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, S. W.

S. W. Hsieh, C. Y. Chang, Y. S. Lee, C. W. Lin, and S. C. Hsu, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3645 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

S. W. Hsieh, C. Y. Chang, Y. S. Lee, C. W. Lin, and S. C. Hsu, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3645 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Inokuti, M.

D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, and M. Inokuti, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 369-406.

Kildishev, A. V.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, and G. Klimeck, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klanjsek Gunde, M.

M. Klanjsek Gunde and M. Macek, Phys. Status Solidi A 183, 439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klimeck, G.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, and G. Klimeck, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

S. W. Hsieh, C. Y. Chang, Y. S. Lee, C. W. Lin, and S. C. Hsu, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3645 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. W.

S. W. Hsieh, C. Y. Chang, Y. S. Lee, C. W. Lin, and S. C. Hsu, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3645 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Litzenberger, M.

C. Posch, D. Matolin, R. Wohlgenannt, T. Maier, and M. Litzenberger, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Macek, M.

M. Klanjsek Gunde and M. Macek, Phys. Status Solidi A 183, 439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maier, T.

C. Posch, D. Matolin, R. Wohlgenannt, T. Maier, and M. Litzenberger, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matolin, D.

C. Posch, D. Matolin, R. Wohlgenannt, T. Maier, and M. Litzenberger, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neikirk, D. P.

A. S. Weling, P. F. Henning, D. P. Neikirk, and S. Han, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Porter, J. L.

F. J. Gonzáles, J. L. Porter, and G. D. Boreman, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 165 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Posch, C.

C. Posch, D. Matolin, R. Wohlgenannt, T. Maier, and M. Litzenberger, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, and G. Klimeck, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiles, E.

D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, and M. Inokuti, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 369-406.

Smith, D. Y.

D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, and M. Inokuti, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 369-406.

Syllaios, A. J.

A. J. Syllaios and P. Chahal, international patent application WO2004/094969 A1 (April 6, 2004).

Ward, C. A.

Weling, A. S.

A. S. Weling, P. F. Henning, D. P. Neikirk, and S. Han, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wohlgenannt, R.

C. Posch, D. Matolin, R. Wohlgenannt, T. Maier, and M. Litzenberger, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. A.

B. E. Cole, R. E. Higashi, and R. A. Wood, Proc. IEEE 86, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H. K.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, and G. Klimeck, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

C. Posch, D. Matolin, R. Wohlgenannt, T. Maier, and M. Litzenberger, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. W. Hsieh, C. Y. Chang, Y. S. Lee, C. W. Lin, and S. C. Hsu, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3645 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, and G. Klimeck, Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. J. Gonzáles, J. L. Porter, and G. D. Boreman, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 165 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

M. Klanjsek Gunde and M. Macek, Phys. Status Solidi A 183, 439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. E. Cole, R. E. Higashi, and R. A. Wood, Proc. IEEE 86, 1679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. S. Weling, P. F. Henning, D. P. Neikirk, and S. Han, Proc. SPIE 6206, 62061F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Such a system is currently marketed by Cedip Infrared Systems (FLIR), http://www.cedip-infrared.com.

A. J. Syllaios and P. Chahal, international patent application WO2004/094969 A1 (April 6, 2004).

D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, and M. Inokuti, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 369-406.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrograph of microbridges with integrated absorbers on top; oblique view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra in dependence on the lateral size of the absorber elements: widths are 1.25 μm (dashed–dotted curve), 1.50 μm (dotted), 1.75 μm (dashed), and 2.00 μm (solid). The area coverage is 25% for all absorber sizes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of 1.75 μm wide absorber elements. The area coverage is 6.25% (dashed–dotted curve), 12.5% (dotted), 25% (dashed) and 50% (solid).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical simulation of absorption spectra. Solid curve, modeled absorber element of 1.75 μm width and 50% area coverage on Si 3 N x membrane, separated by a 1800 nm air gap from an Al mirror. Dashed curve, same with continuous metallic bottom layer.

Equations (1)

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η = C τ Δ R R 1 TC 1 P in .

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