Abstract

We deal with the recent progress in the fabrication of the graded Co/C multilayer mirrors to be used in a 21× Schwarzschild objective (SO) operating at the wavelengths near 4.5 nm (“carbon window” region). The peak reflectivity of flat Co/C mirrors was measured to be 14.8% (wavelength of 4.48 nm, incidence angle of 5°). The reflectivity curves of the spherical mirrors achieved 3%–6%, with the spectral matching accuracy being Δd0.008  nm (Δd/d0.3%). As a result the SO demonstrates a full working aperture (NA0.2) operation with the total throughput of 0.25%.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. A. Artyukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. S. Kas'yanov, and S. V. Savel'ev, Quantum Electron. 34, 691 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Schäfers, Physica B 283, 119 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. S. Andreev, H. C. Mertins, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schaefers, E. A. Shamov, and L. A. Shmaenok, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448, 133 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Murakami, T. Oshino, H. Nakamura, M. Ohtani, and H. Nagata, Appl. Opt. 32, 7057 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. A. Bugaev, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Pen'kov, Y. P. Pershin, and A. I. Fedorenko, Surf. Invest. X-Ray Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 15, 141 (1999).
  9. I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, V. E. Asadchikov, Y. S. Kasyanov, R. V. Serov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, and S. A. Yulin, Opt. Lett. 20, 2451 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

I. A. Artyukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. S. Kas'yanov, and S. V. Savel'ev, Quantum Electron. 34, 691 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

F. Schäfers, Physica B 283, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Andreev, H. C. Mertins, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schaefers, E. A. Shamov, and L. A. Shmaenok, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448, 133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. A. Bugaev, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Pen'kov, Y. P. Pershin, and A. I. Fedorenko, Surf. Invest. X-Ray Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 15, 141 (1999).

1998 (1)

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

Andreev, S. S.

S. S. Andreev, H. C. Mertins, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schaefers, E. A. Shamov, and L. A. Shmaenok, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448, 133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Artioukov, I. A.

Artyukov, I. A.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artyukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. S. Kas'yanov, and S. V. Savel'ev, Quantum Electron. 34, 691 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asadchikov, V. E.

Bugaev, E. A.

E. A. Bugaev, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Pen'kov, Y. P. Pershin, and A. I. Fedorenko, Surf. Invest. X-Ray Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 15, 141 (1999).

Bugayev, Y.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bugayev, Y. A.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devizenko, O. Y.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, A. I.

E. A. Bugaev, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Pen'kov, Y. P. Pershin, and A. I. Fedorenko, Surf. Invest. X-Ray Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 15, 141 (1999).

I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, V. E. Asadchikov, Y. S. Kasyanov, R. V. Serov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, and S. A. Yulin, Opt. Lett. 20, 2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feigl, T.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feschenko, R. M.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feshchenko, R. M.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hatano, T.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasyanov, Y. S.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, V. E. Asadchikov, Y. S. Kasyanov, R. V. Serov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, and S. A. Yulin, Opt. Lett. 20, 2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kas'yanov, Y. S.

I. A. Artyukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. S. Kas'yanov, and S. V. Savel'ev, Quantum Electron. 34, 691 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenko, V. V.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Bugaev, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Pen'kov, Y. P. Pershin, and A. I. Fedorenko, Surf. Invest. X-Ray Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 15, 141 (1999).

I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, V. E. Asadchikov, Y. S. Kasyanov, R. V. Serov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, and S. A. Yulin, Opt. Lett. 20, 2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumrey, M.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mertins, H. C.

S. S. Andreev, H. C. Mertins, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schaefers, E. A. Shamov, and L. A. Shmaenok, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448, 133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, K.

Nagata, H.

Nakamura, H.

Ohtani, M.

Oshino, T.

Pen'kov, A. V.

E. A. Bugaev, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Pen'kov, Y. P. Pershin, and A. I. Fedorenko, Surf. Invest. X-Ray Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 15, 141 (1999).

Pershin, Y. P.

E. A. Bugaev, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Pen'kov, Y. P. Pershin, and A. I. Fedorenko, Surf. Invest. X-Ray Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 15, 141 (1999).

Platonov, Y. Y.

S. S. Andreev, H. C. Mertins, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schaefers, E. A. Shamov, and L. A. Shmaenok, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448, 133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Romanova, S. A.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salashchenko, N. N.

S. S. Andreev, H. C. Mertins, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schaefers, E. A. Shamov, and L. A. Shmaenok, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448, 133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Savel'ev, S. V.

I. A. Artyukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. S. Kas'yanov, and S. V. Savel'ev, Quantum Electron. 34, 691 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saveliev, S. V.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaefers, F.

S. S. Andreev, H. C. Mertins, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schaefers, E. A. Shamov, and L. A. Shmaenok, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448, 133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schafers, F.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schäfers, F.

F. Schäfers, Physica B 283, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Serov, R. V.

Shamov, E. A.

S. S. Andreev, H. C. Mertins, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schaefers, E. A. Shamov, and L. A. Shmaenok, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448, 133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shmaenok, L. A.

S. S. Andreev, H. C. Mertins, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schaefers, E. A. Shamov, and L. A. Shmaenok, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448, 133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uspenski, Y. A.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artyukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. S. Kas'yanov, and S. V. Savel'ev, Quantum Electron. 34, 691 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, V. E. Asadchikov, Y. S. Kasyanov, R. V. Serov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, and S. A. Yulin, Opt. Lett. 20, 2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yulin, S. A.

Zubarev, E. N.

E. A. Bugaev, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Pen'kov, Y. P. Pershin, and A. I. Fedorenko, Surf. Invest. X-Ray Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 15, 141 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

S. S. Andreev, H. C. Mertins, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schaefers, E. A. Shamov, and L. A. Shmaenok, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448, 133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physica B (1)

F. Schäfers, Physica B 283, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

I. A. Artyukov, Y. A. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feshchenko, T. Hatano, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 6702, 67020V (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artyukov, Y. Bugayev, O. Y. Devizenko, R. M. Feschenko, Y. S. Kasyanov, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Romanova, S. V. Saveliev, F. Schafers, T. Feigl, Y. A. Uspenski, and A. V. Vinogradov, Proc. SPIE 5919, 59190E (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

I. A. Artyukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. S. Kas'yanov, and S. V. Savel'ev, Quantum Electron. 34, 691 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Invest. X-Ray Synchrotron Neutron Tech. (1)

E. A. Bugaev, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Pen'kov, Y. P. Pershin, and A. I. Fedorenko, Surf. Invest. X-Ray Synchrotron Neutron Tech. 15, 141 (1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured (symbols) and calculated (curves) reflectivity of Co/C multilayer mirrors versus wavelength: incidence angle is 5°. Note that λ / Δ λ strongly corresponds to N for all measured samples. See also Table 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resonance wavelengths (of maximum reflectivity) measured locally across the diameters of concave (empty circles, L C V ) and convex (filled squares, L C X ) mirrors to be used in the soft x-ray SO. The X axes are scaled to take into account ray tracing relation of the mirrors in the SO.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Peak reflectivity measured locally across the diameters of concave (empty circles, L C V ) and convex (filled squares, L C X ) mirrors. Pronounced drop in relative reflectance at the center of the convex mirror is believed to result from increased surface roughness of the substrate used.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Co/C Multilayer Mirrors a

Metrics