Abstract

A one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructure is locally excited through a metal aperture. It is shown that the electron density can be coherently localized at desired spatial and temporal positions by using nontrivially shaped laser pulses. To obtain the optimized laser field, Bloch equations for a tight-binding model system are solved together with a genetic pulse-shaping algorithm. Full three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations of the Maxwell–Bloch equations confirm the predicted coherent spatiotemporal control.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. A. Atwater, Sci. Am. 296, 56 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. C. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Pasenow, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195321 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Meier, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Coherent Semiconductor Optics: From Basic Concepts to Nanostructure Applications (Springer, 2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House, 2005).
  16. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. E. Eiben and J. E. Smith, Introduction to Evolutionary Computing (Springer, 2003).

2008 (1)

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 117402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. A. Atwater, Sci. Am. 296, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. Pasenow, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

T. C. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Steininger, A. Knorr, T. Stroucken, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 550 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, J.

T. C. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater, Sci. Am. 296, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayer, D.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brixner, T.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

T. C. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eiben, A. E.

A. E. Eiben and J. E. Smith, Introduction to Evolutionary Computing (Springer, 2003).

Faleev, S. V.

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House, 2005).

Hanewinkel, B.

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Knorr, A.

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Steininger, A. Knorr, T. Stroucken, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 550 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

B. Pasenow, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Steininger, A. Knorr, T. Stroucken, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 550 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Meier, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Coherent Semiconductor Optics: From Basic Concepts to Nanostructure Applications (Springer, 2007).

Lévêque, G.

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 117402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 117402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, T.

B. Pasenow, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Meier, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Coherent Semiconductor Optics: From Basic Concepts to Nanostructure Applications (Springer, 2007).

Murray, W. A.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasenow, B.

B. Pasenow, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, W.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichelt, M.

B. Pasenow, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rohmer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J. E.

A. E. Eiben and J. E. Smith, Introduction to Evolutionary Computing (Springer, 2003).

Spindler, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steeb, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steininger, F.

F. Steininger, A. Knorr, T. Stroucken, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 550 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroucken, T.

B. Pasenow, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Steininger, A. Knorr, T. Stroucken, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 550 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House, 2005).

Thomas, P.

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Steininger, A. Knorr, T. Stroucken, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 550 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Meier, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Coherent Semiconductor Optics: From Basic Concepts to Nanostructure Applications (Springer, 2007).

Weinacht, T. C.

T. C. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Nature 397, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

B. Pasenow, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 117402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Steininger, A. Knorr, T. Stroucken, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 550 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Am. (1)

H. A. Atwater, Sci. Am. 296, 56 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

T. Meier, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, Coherent Semiconductor Optics: From Basic Concepts to Nanostructure Applications (Springer, 2007).

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House, 2005).

A. E. Eiben and J. E. Smith, Introduction to Evolutionary Computing (Springer, 2003).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematical setup of the hybrid structure as described in the text. (b) Optimized input pulse for a full FDTD simulation generating Fig. 3b.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatiotemporal dynamics of the electron density for two different excitation pulses. Both pulses have the same energy content and excite the system at site 5 (0 nm); however, they concentrate the electrons at spot (a) 1 or (b) 7, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Full FDTD simulations of the density dynamics. Owing to different excitation pulses electrons are concentrated in (a) one or (b) two spots, respectively.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H = i j T i j e c i + c j + i j T i j h d i + d j i E i ( t ) ( μ i i d i c i + h.c. ) .
i ℏ; t p i j = k T j k e p i k + k T k i h p k j μ i i δ i j E i ( t ) .
{ A i , φ i } E ( t ) i A i g ( t ) cos ( ω i t + φ i ) .
f = n p ( t opt ) i p n i ( t opt )

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