Abstract

The observation of surface-plasmon resonances in indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films is complemented with the effects of hybrid ITO/Au conducting layers where charge densities can be tuned. Where carrier densities are similar (ITO and nanoparticle Au), the plasmonic behavior is that of a monolithic ITO thin film. Where the carrier density of one layer is much greater than that of the other (ITO and Au metal), boundary conditions lead to cancelation of the surface plasmon. In the latter case a capacitivelike plasmon resonance is observed for sufficiently thin films.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

Y. S. Park, H. K. Park, J. A. Jeong, H. K. Kim, K. H. Choi, S. I. Na, and D. Y. Kim, J. Electroanal. Chem. 156, H588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Losego, J. P. Maria, A. Efremenko, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 024903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, T. M. Brown, A. Reale, and A. D. Carlo, Opt. Express 17, 10155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Franzen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 6027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Szunerits, X. Castel, and R. Boukherroub, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 15813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Sakaia, Y. Fujiwaraa, M. Araia, K. Yua, and T. Tatsuma, J. Electroanal. Chem. 628, 7 (2008).

R. Miedzinki, J. Ebothe, M. Oyama, and I. V. Kityk, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Lee, Z. Q. Guan, H. X. Xu, and M. Moskovits, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 17985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. D. Driskell, R. J. Lipert, and M. D. Porter, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 17444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rhodes, S. Weibel, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. L. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Saito, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, Opt. Express 14, 2904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, Chem. Phys. 300, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. V. Duyne, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nath and A. Chilkoti, Anal. Chem. 76, 5370 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, M. H. Zareie, R. Aebersold, and C. T. Campbell, Opt. Commun. 76, 918 (2004).

2002 (3)

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 12986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Alloys Compd. 338, 73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Malmqvist, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 27, 335 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

W. Knoll, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 569 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

A. Hjortsberg, I. Hamberg, and C. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films 90, 323 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

F. Wooten, Optical Properties of Solids (Academic, 1972).

1957 (1)

1900 (1)

P. Drude, Ann. Phys. 1, 566 (1900).
[CrossRef]

1857 (1)

M. Faraday, Philos. Trans. R. (1857).

Abeles, F.

Aebersold, R.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, M. H. Zareie, R. Aebersold, and C. T. Campbell, Opt. Commun. 76, 918 (2004).

Aitchison, J. S.

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA.

Alam, M. Z.

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA.

Araia, M.

N. Sakaia, Y. Fujiwaraa, M. Araia, K. Yua, and T. Tatsuma, J. Electroanal. Chem. 628, 7 (2008).

Aspnes, D. E.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boukherroub, R.

S. Szunerits, X. Castel, and R. Boukherroub, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 15813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, S. H.

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, Chem. Phys. 300, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Alloys Compd. 338, 73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 12986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brockman, J. M.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, T. M.

Campbell, C. T.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, M. H. Zareie, R. Aebersold, and C. T. Campbell, Opt. Commun. 76, 918 (2004).

Carlo, A. D.

Castel, X.

S. Szunerits, X. Castel, and R. Boukherroub, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 15813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerruti, M.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chilkoti, A.

N. Nath and A. Chilkoti, Anal. Chem. 76, 5370 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. H.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Park, J. A. Jeong, H. K. Kim, K. H. Choi, S. I. Na, and D. Y. Kim, J. Electroanal. Chem. 156, H588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corn, R. M.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dominici, L.

Driskell, J. D.

J. D. Driskell, R. J. Lipert, and M. D. Porter, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 17444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drude, P.

P. Drude, Ann. Phys. 1, 566 (1900).
[CrossRef]

Duscher, G.

C. Rhodes, S. Weibel, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. L. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duyne, R. P. V.

A. J. Haes and R. P. V. Duyne, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyer, M. J.

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebothe, J.

R. Miedzinki, J. Ebothe, M. Oyama, and I. V. Kityk, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Efremenko, A.

M. Losego, J. P. Maria, A. Efremenko, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 024903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faraday, M.

M. Faraday, Philos. Trans. R. (1857).

Franzen, S.

M. Losego, J. P. Maria, A. Efremenko, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 024903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Franzen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 6027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rhodes, S. Weibel, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. L. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, Chem. Phys. 300, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Alloys Compd. 338, 73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 12986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gerber, D. N. Leonard, and S. Franzen, Thin Solid Films (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2009.05.033.

Fujiwaraa, Y.

N. Sakaia, Y. Fujiwaraa, M. Araia, K. Yua, and T. Tatsuma, J. Electroanal. Chem. 628, 7 (2008).

Fukui, M.

Gerber, R. W.

R. W. Gerber, D. N. Leonard, and S. Franzen, Thin Solid Films (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2009.05.033.

Granqvist, C.

A. Hjortsberg, I. Hamberg, and C. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films 90, 323 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Guan, Z. Q.

S. J. Lee, Z. Q. Guan, H. X. Xu, and M. Moskovits, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 17985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. V. Duyne, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamberg, I.

A. Hjortsberg, I. Hamberg, and C. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films 90, 323 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Haraguchi, M.

Hjortsberg, A.

A. Hjortsberg, I. Hamberg, and C. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films 90, 323 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. A.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Park, J. A. Jeong, H. K. Kim, K. H. Choi, S. I. Na, and D. Y. Kim, J. Electroanal. Chem. 156, H588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Park, J. A. Jeong, H. K. Kim, K. H. Choi, S. I. Na, and D. Y. Kim, J. Electroanal. Chem. 156, H588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Park, J. A. Jeong, H. K. Kim, K. H. Choi, S. I. Na, and D. Y. Kim, J. Electroanal. Chem. 156, H588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kityk, I. V.

R. Miedzinki, J. Ebothe, M. Oyama, and I. V. Kityk, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

W. Knoll, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 569 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laughlin, B.

C. Rhodes, S. Weibel, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. L. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, Z. Q. Guan, H. X. Xu, and M. Moskovits, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 17985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, D. L.

C. Rhodes, S. Weibel, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. L. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, D. N.

R. W. Gerber, D. N. Leonard, and S. Franzen, Thin Solid Films (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2009.05.033.

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipert, R. J.

J. D. Driskell, R. J. Lipert, and M. D. Porter, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 17444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losego, M.

M. Losego, J. P. Maria, A. Efremenko, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 024903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rhodes, S. Weibel, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. L. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malmqvist, M.

M. Malmqvist, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 27, 335 (1999).
[PubMed]

Maria, J. P.

M. Losego, J. P. Maria, A. Efremenko, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 024903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rhodes, S. Weibel, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. L. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maria, J.-P.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michelotti, F.

Miedzinki, R.

R. Miedzinki, J. Ebothe, M. Oyama, and I. V. Kityk, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

S. J. Lee, Z. Q. Guan, H. X. Xu, and M. Moskovits, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 17985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Park, J. A. Jeong, H. K. Kim, K. H. Choi, S. I. Na, and D. Y. Kim, J. Electroanal. Chem. 156, H588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nath, N.

N. Nath and A. Chilkoti, Anal. Chem. 76, 5370 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, B. P.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oyama, M.

R. Miedzinki, J. Ebothe, M. Oyama, and I. V. Kityk, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. K.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Park, J. A. Jeong, H. K. Kim, K. H. Choi, S. I. Na, and D. Y. Kim, J. Electroanal. Chem. 156, H588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

Y. S. Park, H. K. Park, J. A. Jeong, H. K. Kim, K. H. Choi, S. I. Na, and D. Y. Kim, J. Electroanal. Chem. 156, H588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Porter, M. D.

J. D. Driskell, R. J. Lipert, and M. D. Porter, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 17444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reale, A.

Rhodes, C.

C. Rhodes, M. Cerruti, A. Efremenko, M. Losego, D. E. Aspnes, J.-P. Maria, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rhodes, S. Weibel, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. L. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

Sakaia, N.

N. Sakaia, Y. Fujiwaraa, M. Araia, K. Yua, and T. Tatsuma, J. Electroanal. Chem. 628, 7 (2008).

Shumaker-Parry, J. S.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, M. H. Zareie, R. Aebersold, and C. T. Campbell, Opt. Commun. 76, 918 (2004).

Szunerits, S.

S. Szunerits, X. Castel, and R. Boukherroub, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 15813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuma, T.

N. Sakaia, Y. Fujiwaraa, M. Araia, K. Yua, and T. Tatsuma, J. Electroanal. Chem. 628, 7 (2008).

Weibel, S.

C. Rhodes, S. Weibel, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. L. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weimer, W. A.

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, F.

F. Wooten, Optical Properties of Solids (Academic, 1972).

Xu, H. X.

S. J. Lee, Z. Q. Guan, H. X. Xu, and M. Moskovits, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 17985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. Y. C.

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA.

Yua, K.

N. Sakaia, Y. Fujiwaraa, M. Araia, K. Yua, and T. Tatsuma, J. Electroanal. Chem. 628, 7 (2008).

Zareie, M. H.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, M. H. Zareie, R. Aebersold, and C. T. Campbell, Opt. Commun. 76, 918 (2004).

Zeaiter, K.

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA.

Zilkie, A. J.

M. Y. C. Xu, M. Z. Alam, A. J. Zilkie, K. Zeaiter, and J. S. Aitchison, in CLEO/QELS 2008 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

D. E. Aspnes, Am. J. Phys. 50, 704 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. V. Duyne, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

N. Nath and A. Chilkoti, Anal. Chem. 76, 5370 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. (1)

P. Drude, Ann. Phys. 1, 566 (1900).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (2)

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knoll, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 569 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biochem. Soc. Trans. (1)

M. Malmqvist, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 27, 335 (1999).
[PubMed]

Chem. Phys. (1)

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, Chem. Phys. 300, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Alloys Compd. 338, 73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

C. Rhodes, S. Weibel, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. L. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Franzen, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

R p R s data illustrating the effect of ITO thicknesses and Au overlayers on plasmon–polariton structures in reflectance spectra of ITO and hybrid ITO/Au films. Angles of incidence increase from 42° to 53° in steps of 0.35° as the colors advance from orange to violet. For each sample the configuration and layer thickness or thicknesses in nanometers are shown to the right of the corresponding data. The charge separations of the capacitive (CP) and surface (SP) plasmons underlying the capacitive plasmon resonance (CPR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) structures of A, D and C, F, respectively, are shown in E. For the reference 80 nm ITO film (B) neither the SP nor the CP is fully activated. However, either the associated CPR (A, D) or SPR (C, F) can be made to dominate by controlling the properties of the Au overlayer (A, C) or the ITO thickness (D, F). The high energy feature in (C,F) is a nonresonant (NR) contribution. A metallic Au overlayer effectively reduces the ITO thickness, as seen by comparing (A) and (D). Alternatively, (C) and (F) show that the thickness of the ITO layer is effectively increased when the ITO is covered by a NP-Au overlayer fabricated so its effective carrier concentration matches that of the underlying film. The above data can be completely understood in terms of effective-medium theory and the Fresnel equations for the three- (substrate/overlayer/ambient) and four-phase (substrate/overlayer/overlayer/ambient) models.

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