Abstract

High-resolution (200nm) nanoreliefs, which possess a controllable height change (Δh, up to film thickness) and transmittance or reflectance, have been successfully fabricated in 12-nm-thick Sn films by using 532nm pulsed laser direct writing. Different from current micro/nanofabrication techniques, the height change of the nanoreliefs is generated by a laser-induced-thickening process. The majority of the height change comes from a balling and coarsening effect rather than oxidation of grains. Because both optical density and Δh of the nanoreliefs are almost linear to laser power, the optical images can highly resemble the topographic images. This technique is useful for fabricating complicated nanorelief structures and fine images.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Jürss, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3008, 279 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, Opt. Lett. 7, 578 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. Renstrom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Tseng, Small 1, 924 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Salaita, Y. H. Wang, and C. A. Mirkin, Nature Nanotech. 2, 145 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Juerss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3226, 2 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Su, J. Du, J. Yao, F. Gao, Y. Guo, and Z. Cui, Proc. SPIE 3680, 879 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Yu, X. Yuan, N. Ngo, W. Que, W. Cheong, and V. Koudriachov, Opt. Express 10, 443 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  9. E. Betzig and J. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Wang, H. Xia, B. B. Xu, L. G. Niu, D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 34, 581 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. A. Gorbunov, H. Eichler, and W. Pompe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 19 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Carbajal-Franco, A. Tiburcio-Silver, U. J. M. Domınguez, and A. Sanchez-Juarez, Thin Solid Films 373, 141 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. P. Domashevskaya, O. A. Chuvenkova, V. M. Kashkarov, S. B. Kushev, S. V. Ryabtsev, S. Yu. Turishchev, and Yu. A. Yurakov, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. G. Partridge, M. R. Field, J. L. Peng, A. Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-zadeh, J. Du. Plessis, and D. G. McCulloch, Nanotechnology 19, 125504 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Kolmakov, Y. Zhang, and M. Moskovits, Nano Lett. 3, 1125 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. G. Partridge, M. R. Field, J. L. Peng, A. Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-zadeh, J. Du. Plessis, and D. G. McCulloch, Nanotechnology 19, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

K. Salaita, Y. H. Wang, and C. A. Mirkin, Nature Nanotech. 2, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. P. Domashevskaya, O. A. Chuvenkova, V. M. Kashkarov, S. B. Kushev, S. V. Ryabtsev, S. Yu. Turishchev, and Yu. A. Yurakov, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. A. Tseng, Small 1, 924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Kolmakov, Y. Zhang, and M. Moskovits, Nano Lett. 3, 1125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Carbajal-Franco, A. Tiburcio-Silver, U. J. M. Domınguez, and A. Sanchez-Juarez, Thin Solid Films 373, 141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Su, J. Du, J. Yao, F. Gao, Y. Guo, and Z. Cui, Proc. SPIE 3680, 879 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Juerss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3226, 2 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Jürss, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3008, 279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. A. Gorbunov, H. Eichler, and W. Pompe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. Renstrom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Betzig and J. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and J. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carbajal-Franco, G.

G. Carbajal-Franco, A. Tiburcio-Silver, U. J. M. Domınguez, and A. Sanchez-Juarez, Thin Solid Films 373, 141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. D.

Cheong, W.

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. Renstrom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chuvenkova, O. A.

E. P. Domashevskaya, O. A. Chuvenkova, V. M. Kashkarov, S. B. Kushev, S. V. Ryabtsev, S. Yu. Turishchev, and Yu. A. Yurakov, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Z.

J. Su, J. Du, J. Yao, F. Gao, Y. Guo, and Z. Cui, Proc. SPIE 3680, 879 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Domashevskaya, E. P.

E. P. Domashevskaya, O. A. Chuvenkova, V. M. Kashkarov, S. B. Kushev, S. V. Ryabtsev, S. Yu. Turishchev, and Yu. A. Yurakov, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dominguez, U. J. M.

G. Carbajal-Franco, A. Tiburcio-Silver, U. J. M. Domınguez, and A. Sanchez-Juarez, Thin Solid Films 373, 141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

J. Su, J. Du, J. Yao, F. Gao, Y. Guo, and Z. Cui, Proc. SPIE 3680, 879 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H.

A. A. Gorbunov, H. Eichler, and W. Pompe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Field, M. R.

J. G. Partridge, M. R. Field, J. L. Peng, A. Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-zadeh, J. Du. Plessis, and D. G. McCulloch, Nanotechnology 19, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, T.

Gao, F.

J. Su, J. Du, J. Yao, F. Gao, Y. Guo, and Z. Cui, Proc. SPIE 3680, 879 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunov, A. A.

A. A. Gorbunov, H. Eichler, and W. Pompe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

J. Su, J. Du, J. Yao, F. Gao, Y. Guo, and Z. Cui, Proc. SPIE 3680, 879 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, U.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Juerss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3226, 2 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Juerss, M.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Juerss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3226, 2 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jürss, M.

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Jürss, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3008, 279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalantar-zadeh, K.

J. G. Partridge, M. R. Field, J. L. Peng, A. Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-zadeh, J. Du. Plessis, and D. G. McCulloch, Nanotechnology 19, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashkarov, V. M.

E. P. Domashevskaya, O. A. Chuvenkova, V. M. Kashkarov, S. B. Kushev, S. V. Ryabtsev, S. Yu. Turishchev, and Yu. A. Yurakov, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolmakov, A.

A. Kolmakov, Y. Zhang, and M. Moskovits, Nano Lett. 3, 1125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koudriachov, V.

Koyama, J.

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. Renstrom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kushev, S. B.

E. P. Domashevskaya, O. A. Chuvenkova, V. M. Kashkarov, S. B. Kushev, S. V. Ryabtsev, S. Yu. Turishchev, and Yu. A. Yurakov, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, D. G.

J. G. Partridge, M. R. Field, J. L. Peng, A. Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-zadeh, J. Du. Plessis, and D. G. McCulloch, Nanotechnology 19, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

K. Salaita, Y. H. Wang, and C. A. Mirkin, Nature Nanotech. 2, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

A. Kolmakov, Y. Zhang, and M. Moskovits, Nano Lett. 3, 1125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N.

Nishihara, H.

Niu, L. G.

Partridge, J. G.

J. G. Partridge, M. R. Field, J. L. Peng, A. Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-zadeh, J. Du. Plessis, and D. G. McCulloch, Nanotechnology 19, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, J. L.

J. G. Partridge, M. R. Field, J. L. Peng, A. Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-zadeh, J. Du. Plessis, and D. G. McCulloch, Nanotechnology 19, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pilz, W.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Juerss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3226, 2 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Plessis, J. Du.

J. G. Partridge, M. R. Field, J. L. Peng, A. Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-zadeh, J. Du. Plessis, and D. G. McCulloch, Nanotechnology 19, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pompe, W.

A. A. Gorbunov, H. Eichler, and W. Pompe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Que, W.

Quenzer, H. J.

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Jürss, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3008, 279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Juerss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3226, 2 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reimer, K.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Juerss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3226, 2 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Jürss, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3008, 279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. Renstrom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ryabtsev, S. V.

E. P. Domashevskaya, O. A. Chuvenkova, V. M. Kashkarov, S. B. Kushev, S. V. Ryabtsev, S. Yu. Turishchev, and Yu. A. Yurakov, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sadek, A. Z.

J. G. Partridge, M. R. Field, J. L. Peng, A. Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-zadeh, J. Du. Plessis, and D. G. McCulloch, Nanotechnology 19, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salaita, K.

K. Salaita, Y. H. Wang, and C. A. Mirkin, Nature Nanotech. 2, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Juarez, A.

G. Carbajal-Franco, A. Tiburcio-Silver, U. J. M. Domınguez, and A. Sanchez-Juarez, Thin Solid Films 373, 141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

J. Su, J. Du, J. Yao, F. Gao, Y. Guo, and Z. Cui, Proc. SPIE 3680, 879 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiburcio-Silver, A.

G. Carbajal-Franco, A. Tiburcio-Silver, U. J. M. Domınguez, and A. Sanchez-Juarez, Thin Solid Films 373, 141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J.

E. Betzig and J. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, A. A.

A. A. Tseng, Small 1, 924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turishchev, S. Yu.

E. P. Domashevskaya, O. A. Chuvenkova, V. M. Kashkarov, S. B. Kushev, S. V. Ryabtsev, S. Yu. Turishchev, and Yu. A. Yurakov, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, B.

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Jürss, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3008, 279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Juerss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3226, 2 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, Y. H.

K. Salaita, Y. H. Wang, and C. A. Mirkin, Nature Nanotech. 2, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Xia, H.

Xu, B. B.

Yao, J.

J. Su, J. Du, J. Yao, F. Gao, Y. Guo, and Z. Cui, Proc. SPIE 3680, 879 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

Yuan, X.

Yurakov, Yu. A.

E. P. Domashevskaya, O. A. Chuvenkova, V. M. Kashkarov, S. B. Kushev, S. V. Ryabtsev, S. Yu. Turishchev, and Yu. A. Yurakov, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

A. Kolmakov, Y. Zhang, and M. Moskovits, Nano Lett. 3, 1125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. Renstrom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Gorbunov, H. Eichler, and W. Pompe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Kolmakov, Y. Zhang, and M. Moskovits, Nano Lett. 3, 1125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. G. Partridge, M. R. Field, J. L. Peng, A. Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-zadeh, J. Du. Plessis, and D. G. McCulloch, Nanotechnology 19, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature Nanotech. (1)

K. Salaita, Y. H. Wang, and C. A. Mirkin, Nature Nanotech. 2, 145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Jürss, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3008, 279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Juerss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, and B. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 3226, 2 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Su, J. Du, J. Yao, F. Gao, Y. Guo, and Z. Cui, Proc. SPIE 3680, 879 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Betzig and J. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

A. A. Tseng, Small 1, 924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

E. P. Domashevskaya, O. A. Chuvenkova, V. M. Kashkarov, S. B. Kushev, S. V. Ryabtsev, S. Yu. Turishchev, and Yu. A. Yurakov, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. Carbajal-Franco, A. Tiburcio-Silver, U. J. M. Domınguez, and A. Sanchez-Juarez, Thin Solid Films 373, 141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a),(b) Optical images in Sn film created by the LDW technique; (c) and (d) are back-lit and front-lit images, where (d) is reverse processed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser power versus (a) optical density at 532 nm and (b) Δ h at a pulse width of 80 ns , both demonstrating nearly linear relationships.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) AFM topographic image of the nanorelief ( 70 μ m × 70 μ m ) and (b) section analysis along the line “I.” (c) AFM image ( 20 μ m × 20 μ m ) of raster-scanned lines with high resolution of 200 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mechanism of height change in the nanoreliefs. (a) Proposed model: (1) as-deposited Sn film with flat grains, (2) balling and coarsening of Sn grains induced by LDW, and (3) after cooling down. (b) SAED results verify the formation of Sn a - Sn O x core/shell structure. (c) TEM image showing evolution of Sn a - Sn O x core/shell structures: (1)–(4) are the film morphologies corresponding to different laser powers from low to high.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Sn + ( x 2 ) O 2 pulsed laser Sn O x .

Metrics