Abstract

A III–V thin-film single-quantum-well edge-emitting laser is patterned on both sides of the epitaxial layer and bonded to silicon. Injected threshold current densities of 420Acm2 for gain-guided lasers with bottom p-stripes and top n-stripes and 244Acm2 for index-guided bottom p-ridge and top n-stripe lasers are measured with a lasing wavelength of 995nm. These threshold current densities, among the lowest for thin-film edge-emitting lasers on silicon reported to date (to our knowledge), enable the implementation of integrated applications such as power-efficient portable chip-scale photonic sensing systems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2009

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, J. Biophoton. 2, 212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Chen, T. Hong, J.-Q. Pan, W.-X. Chen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y. Wang, X.-B. Ma, W.-L. Liu, L.-J. Zhao, G.-Z. Ran, W. Wang, and G.-G. Qin, Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 064211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Jorg, A. Thomas, P. Sarah, A. Z. Dan, M. J. Anders, B. Gabriella, T. Ivan, and H. Ole, Proc. SPIE 6896, 6896141 (2008).

2007

2006

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, S. Verstuyft, J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 188-190.
[CrossRef]

2005

S.-W. Seo, S.-Y. Cho, and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. M. Sands, Sens. Actuators, A 111, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H.-F. Kuo, S.-Y. Cho, J. Hall, and N. M. Jokerst, in 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 61, pp. 63-64.

N. Tansu, J.-Y. Yeh, and L. J. Mawst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. A. B. Miller, Proc. IEEE 88, 728 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Tauber, M. Horita, J. Piprek, P. Abraham, J. A. L. Holmes, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. J. Joo, S. Fike, K. S. Chung, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1997).
[PubMed]

R. E. Kunz, Sens. Actuators B 38, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Fan, K. Y. Chen, G. Lin, and C. P. Lee, Electron. Lett. 33, 1094 (1997).

1994

P. M. DeDobbelaere, F. Vermaerke, G. Vermeire, P. Demeester, P. VanDaele, G. R. Moehlmann, J.-L. P. Heideman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Proc. SPIE 2285, 352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Yanagisawa, H. Terui, K. Shuto, T. Miya, and M. Kobayashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, and M. Allen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Pollentier, L. Buydens, P. V. Daele, and P. Demeester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 115 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Beernink, J. J. Alwan, and J. J. Coleman, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 56 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

E. Yablonovitch, E. Kapon, T. J. Gmitter, C. P. Yun, and R. Bhatt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 41 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, P.

D. Tauber, M. Horita, J. Piprek, P. Abraham, J. A. L. Holmes, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M.

C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, and M. Allen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alwan, J. J.

K. J. Beernink, J. J. Alwan, and J. J. Coleman, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 56 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anders, M. J.

H. Jorg, A. Thomas, P. Sarah, A. Z. Dan, M. J. Anders, B. Gabriella, T. Ivan, and H. Ole, Proc. SPIE 6896, 6896141 (2008).

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, S. Verstuyft, J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 188-190.
[CrossRef]

Beernink, K. J.

K. J. Beernink, J. J. Alwan, and J. J. Coleman, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 56 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bhatt, R.

E. Yablonovitch, E. Kapon, T. J. Gmitter, C. P. Yun, and R. Bhatt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 41 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

H.-H. Chang, A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 15, 11466 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tauber, M. Horita, J. Piprek, P. Abraham, J. A. L. Holmes, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brooke, M.

Y. J. Joo, S. Fike, K. S. Chung, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1997).
[PubMed]

Brouckaert, J.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, S. Verstuyft, J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 188-190.
[CrossRef]

Buydens, L.

I. Pollentier, L. Buydens, P. V. Daele, and P. Demeester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 115 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Camperi-Ginestet, C.

C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, and M. Allen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-H.

Chediak, J. A.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. M. Sands, Sens. Actuators, A 111, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. Y.

J. C. Fan, K. Y. Chen, G. Lin, and C. P. Lee, Electron. Lett. 33, 1094 (1997).

Chen, T.

T. Chen, T. Hong, J.-Q. Pan, W.-X. Chen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y. Wang, X.-B. Ma, W.-L. Liu, L.-J. Zhao, G.-Z. Ran, W. Wang, and G.-G. Qin, Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 064211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-X.

T. Chen, T. Hong, J.-Q. Pan, W.-X. Chen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y. Wang, X.-B. Ma, W.-L. Liu, L.-J. Zhao, G.-Z. Ran, W. Wang, and G.-G. Qin, Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 064211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-B.

T. Chen, T. Hong, J.-Q. Pan, W.-X. Chen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y. Wang, X.-B. Ma, W.-L. Liu, L.-J. Zhao, G.-Z. Ran, W. Wang, and G.-G. Qin, Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 064211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, N.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. M. Sands, Sens. Actuators, A 111, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Seo, S.-Y. Cho, and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-F. Kuo, S.-Y. Cho, J. Hall, and N. M. Jokerst, in 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 61, pp. 63-64.

Chung, K. S.

Y. J. Joo, S. Fike, K. S. Chung, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1997).
[PubMed]

Cohen, O.

Coleman, J. J.

K. J. Beernink, J. J. Alwan, and J. J. Coleman, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 56 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Daele, P. V.

I. Pollentier, L. Buydens, P. V. Daele, and P. Demeester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 115 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dan, A. Z.

H. Jorg, A. Thomas, P. Sarah, A. Z. Dan, M. J. Anders, B. Gabriella, T. Ivan, and H. Ole, Proc. SPIE 6896, 6896141 (2008).

DeDobbelaere, P. M.

P. M. DeDobbelaere, F. Vermaerke, G. Vermeire, P. Demeester, P. VanDaele, G. R. Moehlmann, J.-L. P. Heideman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Proc. SPIE 2285, 352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

P. M. DeDobbelaere, F. Vermaerke, G. Vermeire, P. Demeester, P. VanDaele, G. R. Moehlmann, J.-L. P. Heideman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Proc. SPIE 2285, 352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Pollentier, L. Buydens, P. V. Daele, and P. Demeester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 115 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, S.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, J. Biophoton. 2, 212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. C.

J. C. Fan, K. Y. Chen, G. Lin, and C. P. Lee, Electron. Lett. 33, 1094 (1997).

Fang, A. W.

Fike, S.

Y. J. Joo, S. Fike, K. S. Chung, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1997).
[PubMed]

Gabriella, B.

H. Jorg, A. Thomas, P. Sarah, A. Z. Dan, M. J. Anders, B. Gabriella, T. Ivan, and H. Ole, Proc. SPIE 6896, 6896141 (2008).

Gmitter, T. J.

E. Yablonovitch, E. Kapon, T. J. Gmitter, C. P. Yun, and R. Bhatt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 41 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J.

H.-F. Kuo, S.-Y. Cho, J. Hall, and N. M. Jokerst, in 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 61, pp. 63-64.

Hargis, M.

C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, and M. Allen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Heideman, J.-L. P.

P. M. DeDobbelaere, F. Vermaerke, G. Vermeire, P. Demeester, P. VanDaele, G. R. Moehlmann, J.-L. P. Heideman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Proc. SPIE 2285, 352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, J. A. L.

D. Tauber, M. Horita, J. Piprek, P. Abraham, J. A. L. Holmes, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hong, T.

T. Chen, T. Hong, J.-Q. Pan, W.-X. Chen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y. Wang, X.-B. Ma, W.-L. Liu, L.-J. Zhao, G.-Z. Ran, W. Wang, and G.-G. Qin, Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 064211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horita, M.

D. Tauber, M. Horita, J. Piprek, P. Abraham, J. A. L. Holmes, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

P. M. DeDobbelaere, F. Vermaerke, G. Vermeire, P. Demeester, P. VanDaele, G. R. Moehlmann, J.-L. P. Heideman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Proc. SPIE 2285, 352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ivan, T.

H. Jorg, A. Thomas, P. Sarah, A. Z. Dan, M. J. Anders, B. Gabriella, T. Ivan, and H. Ole, Proc. SPIE 6896, 6896141 (2008).

Jokerst, N.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, J. Biophoton. 2, 212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Seo, S.-Y. Cho, and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-F. Kuo, S.-Y. Cho, J. Hall, and N. M. Jokerst, in 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 61, pp. 63-64.

Y. J. Joo, S. Fike, K. S. Chung, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1997).
[PubMed]

C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, and M. Allen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Joo, Y. J.

Y. J. Joo, S. Fike, K. S. Chung, M. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (IEEE, 1997).
[PubMed]

Jorg, H.

H. Jorg, A. Thomas, P. Sarah, A. Z. Dan, M. J. Anders, B. Gabriella, T. Ivan, and H. Ole, Proc. SPIE 6896, 6896141 (2008).

Kapon, E.

E. Yablonovitch, E. Kapon, T. J. Gmitter, C. P. Yun, and R. Bhatt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 41 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

M. Yanagisawa, H. Terui, K. Shuto, T. Miya, and M. Kobayashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

R. E. Kunz, Sens. Actuators B 38, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-F.

H.-F. Kuo, S.-Y. Cho, J. Hall, and N. M. Jokerst, in 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 61, pp. 63-64.

Lee, C. P.

J. C. Fan, K. Y. Chen, G. Lin, and C. P. Lee, Electron. Lett. 33, 1094 (1997).

Lee, L. P.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. M. Sands, Sens. Actuators, A 111, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.

J. C. Fan, K. Y. Chen, G. Lin, and C. P. Lee, Electron. Lett. 33, 1094 (1997).

Liu, W.-L.

T. Chen, T. Hong, J.-Q. Pan, W.-X. Chen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y. Wang, X.-B. Ma, W.-L. Liu, L.-J. Zhao, G.-Z. Ran, W. Wang, and G.-G. Qin, Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 064211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luan, L.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, J. Biophoton. 2, 212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. M. Sands, Sens. Actuators, A 111, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.-B.

T. Chen, T. Hong, J.-Q. Pan, W.-X. Chen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y. Wang, X.-B. Ma, W.-L. Liu, L.-J. Zhao, G.-Z. Ran, W. Wang, and G.-G. Qin, Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 064211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mawst, L. J.

N. Tansu, J.-Y. Yeh, and L. J. Mawst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, Proc. IEEE 88, 728 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miya, T.

M. Yanagisawa, H. Terui, K. Shuto, T. Miya, and M. Kobayashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moehlmann, G. R.

P. M. DeDobbelaere, F. Vermaerke, G. Vermeire, P. Demeester, P. VanDaele, G. R. Moehlmann, J.-L. P. Heideman, and W. H. G. Horsthuis, Proc. SPIE 2285, 352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ole, H.

H. Jorg, A. Thomas, P. Sarah, A. Z. Dan, M. J. Anders, B. Gabriella, T. Ivan, and H. Ole, Proc. SPIE 6896, 6896141 (2008).

Palit, S.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, J. Biophoton. 2, 212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.-Q.

T. Chen, T. Hong, J.-Q. Pan, W.-X. Chen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y. Wang, X.-B. Ma, W.-L. Liu, L.-J. Zhao, G.-Z. Ran, W. Wang, and G.-G. Qin, Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 064211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Piprek, J.

D. Tauber, M. Horita, J. Piprek, P. Abraham, J. A. L. Holmes, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pollentier, I.

I. Pollentier, L. Buydens, P. V. Daele, and P. Demeester, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 115 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.-G.

T. Chen, T. Hong, J.-Q. Pan, W.-X. Chen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y. Wang, X.-B. Ma, W.-L. Liu, L.-J. Zhao, G.-Z. Ran, W. Wang, and G.-G. Qin, Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 064211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raday, O.

Ran, G.-Z.

T. Chen, T. Hong, J.-Q. Pan, W.-X. Chen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y. Wang, X.-B. Ma, W.-L. Liu, L.-J. Zhao, G.-Z. Ran, W. Wang, and G.-G. Qin, Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 064211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, S. Verstuyft, J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 188-190.
[CrossRef]

Royal, M.

N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, J. Biophoton. 2, 212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T. M.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. M. Sands, Sens. Actuators, A 111, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarah, P.

H. Jorg, A. Thomas, P. Sarah, A. Z. Dan, M. J. Anders, B. Gabriella, T. Ivan, and H. Ole, Proc. SPIE 6896, 6896141 (2008).

Schrauwen, J.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, S. Verstuyft, J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 188-190.
[CrossRef]

Seo, J.

J. A. Chediak, Z. Luo, J. Seo, N. Cheung, L. P. Lee, and T. M. Sands, Sens. Actuators, A 111, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.-W.

S.-W. Seo, S.-Y. Cho, and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shuto, K.

M. Yanagisawa, H. Terui, K. Shuto, T. Miya, and M. Kobayashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sysak, M. N.

Tansu, N.

N. Tansu, J.-Y. Yeh, and L. J. Mawst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tauber, D.

D. Tauber, M. Horita, J. Piprek, P. Abraham, J. A. L. Holmes, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Terui, H.

M. Yanagisawa, H. Terui, K. Shuto, T. Miya, and M. Kobayashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 21 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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H. Jorg, A. Thomas, P. Sarah, A. Z. Dan, M. J. Anders, B. Gabriella, T. Ivan, and H. Ole, Proc. SPIE 6896, 6896141 (2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication process for III–V thin-film EELs with photolithographically defined p and n contacts integrated onto silicon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

L–I characteristics for thin-film laser with 50 μ m p-metal and n-metal stripes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

L–I characteristics for a p-ridge/n-stripe laser with 40 μ m p-metal stripe, p-ridge width of 50 μ m , an n-metal stripe of 40 μ m , and a cavity length of 1000 μ m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM cross section of p-ridge/n-stripe laser. Inset, photograph of laser bonded to metal contact on Si. (b) L–I characteristics for p-ridge/n-stripe laser. P-metal stripe width of 10 μ m , a p-ridge of 15 μ m , an n-metal stripe of 30 μ m , and a laser cavity length of 1000 μ m . Inset, spectrum indicates lasing at a wavelength of 994.95 nm and a laser linewidth of 0.187 nm .

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