Abstract

We present a liquid tunable diffractive/refractive hybrid lens fabricated through what we believe to be a novel process that combines single-point diamond turning with soft lithography techniques. The hybrid lens achieves focal length tunability by changing its shape and, at the same time, utilizes the unique dispersion property of diffractive surfaces to enhance its spectral performance within a wide tuning range.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).
  8. M. Daimon and A. Masumura, Appl. Opt. 46, 3811 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. J. A. Schueller, X. M. Zhao, G. M. Whitesides, S. P. Smith, and M. Prentiss, Adv. Mater. 11, 37 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1992).

2007 (2)

2004 (1)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

1999 (1)

O. J. A. Schueller, X. M. Zhao, G. M. Whitesides, S. P. Smith, and M. Prentiss, Adv. Mater. 11, 37 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1992).

1988 (1)

Berdichevsky, Y.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blough, C. G.

Choi, J.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daimon, M.

George, N.

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lien, V.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mack, S. K.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1992).

Masumura, A.

Michaels, R. L.

Prentiss, M.

O. J. A. Schueller, X. M. Zhao, G. M. Whitesides, S. P. Smith, and M. Prentiss, Adv. Mater. 11, 37 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reichelt, S.

Rossi, M.

Schueller, O. J. A.

O. J. A. Schueller, X. M. Zhao, G. M. Whitesides, S. P. Smith, and M. Prentiss, Adv. Mater. 11, 37 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. P.

O. J. A. Schueller, X. M. Zhao, G. M. Whitesides, S. P. Smith, and M. Prentiss, Adv. Mater. 11, 37 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stone, T.

Whitesides, G. M.

O. J. A. Schueller, X. M. Zhao, G. M. Whitesides, S. P. Smith, and M. Prentiss, Adv. Mater. 11, 37 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zappe, H.

Zhang, D. Y.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. M.

O. J. A. Schueller, X. M. Zhao, G. M. Whitesides, S. P. Smith, and M. Prentiss, Adv. Mater. 11, 37 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

O. J. A. Schueller, X. M. Zhao, G. M. Whitesides, S. P. Smith, and M. Prentiss, Adv. Mater. 11, 37 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the liquid tunable hybrid lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral dependence of focal length at D line focal lengths of (a) 10, (b) 15, (c) 20, and (d) 25 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fabrication process flow; (b) and (c) measured surface profiles showing the details of a sample PDMS slab.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured focal length versus injection volume (inset: schematic of measurement method).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup and sample interferograms at various amounts of defocus.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Focal length difference at various focal lengths.

Equations (1)

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1 f = 1 f 1 + 1 f 2 ,     f 1 V 1 + f 2 V 2 = 0 ,

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