Abstract

We demonstrate a chip-scale compact optical curvature sensor. It consists of a low threshold InGaAsP microdisk laser on a flexible polydimethylsiloxane polymer substrate. The curvature dependence of lasing wavelength was characterized by bending the cavity at different bending radii. The measurements showed that the lasing wavelength decreases monotonously with an increasing bending curvature. A good agreement between experiment and three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation was also obtained. The sensitivity of the compact device to the bending curvature is −23.7 nm/mm from the experiment.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 1, 61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, Opt. Express 14, 6851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang and L. Jay Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Rao, Y.-P. Wang, Z.-L. Ran, and T. Zhu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

D. S. Song, J. K. Hwang, C. K. Kim, I. Y. Han, D. H. Tang, and Y. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 673 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Baba, T.

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 673 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhola, B.

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

Chang, C. C.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. -Y.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. J.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. -J.

Dapkus, P. D.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, S.-J. Choi, S.-J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Djordjev, K.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Djordjev, S.-J. Choi, S.-J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. -N.

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 673 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haberer, E. D.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 1, 61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, I. Y.

D. S. Song, J. K. Hwang, C. K. Kim, I. Y. Han, D. H. Tang, and Y. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 1, 61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Hwang, J. K.

D. S. Song, J. K. Hwang, C. K. Kim, I. Y. Han, D. H. Tang, and Y. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jay Guo, L.

J. Yang and L. Jay Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. K.

D. S. Song, J. K. Hwang, C. K. Kim, I. Y. Han, D. H. Tang, and Y. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

Lee, K. H.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 1, 61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

D. S. Song, J. K. Hwang, C. K. Kim, I. Y. Han, D. H. Tang, and Y. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 1, 61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pang, F.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

Poon, A. W.

Pradhan, S.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ran, Z. -L.

Rao, Y. -J.

Richardson, K.

Sakai, A.

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 673 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, R.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 1, 61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Song, D. S.

D. S. Song, J. K. Hwang, C. K. Kim, I. Y. Han, D. H. Tang, and Y. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. -C.

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamboli, A. C.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 1, 61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. H.

D. S. Song, J. K. Hwang, C. K. Kim, I. Y. Han, D. H. Tang, and Y. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tazawa, H.

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S. T.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. -P.

Williams, J. A. R.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, W.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. F.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

J. Yang and L. Jay Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Zhu, T.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Yang and L. Jay Guo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, and T. Baba, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 673 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Song, J. K. Hwang, C. K. Kim, I. Y. Han, D. H. Tang, and Y. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhola, H.-C. Song, H. Tazawa, and W. H. Steier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Pang, W. Liang, W. Xiang, N. Chen, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 1, 61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustrations of an InGaAsP microdisk cavity on a PDMS polymer substrate from (a) angle and (b) cross section views. (c) SEM image of a microdisk lasers array on a PDMS substrate. (d) Magnified SEM image of a 4.75 μ m microdisk laser on a PDMS substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Lasing spectrum and (b) L–L curve of a 4.75 μ m microdisk laser on a PDMS substrate. The lasing wavelength is 1571.9 nm, and the incident threshold power is 0.18 mW. (c) Calculated hertz mode profile for a 4.75 μ m microdisk laser on a PDMS substrate from the 3D FDTD simulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Illustration of a bent microdisk cavity on a PDMS substrate with a bending radius of R. (b) Homemade curvature component (right) and the bendable metal plates (left) for characterization. (c) Measured lasing spectra from a microdisk laser on a PDMS substrate at varied curvatures under the fixed pumped conditions and 2 mW incident pumped power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Comparison of the FDTD simulated and measured lasing wavelength at varied bending radii. (b) Measured lasing wavelength versus the device curvature within the linear sensing region. The sensitivity is approximately 23.7   nm / mm 1 .

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