Abstract

Top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices (TEWOLEDs) with 1D metallic–dielectric photonic crystal (1D MDPC) as an anode are investigated. A quasi-periodic 1D MDPC anode allowed for fabrication of multiple-peak TEWOLEDs. A two-peak or three-peak TEWOLED was obtained by simply adjusting the thickness of the dielectric layers in the MDPC. The efficiency of the TEWOLEDs are comparable to the corresponding bottom WOLED (11.1cdA), which are 9.9 (two-peak device) and 9.4cdA (three-peak device), respectively, and the contrast of the TEWOLEDs is about twice as high as the bottom device owing to the low reflection of the anode.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

W. Y. Ji, L. T. Zhang, R. X. Gao, L. M. Zhang, W. F. Xie, H. Z. Zhang, and B. Li, Opt. Express 16, 15489 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

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[CrossRef]

2005

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Chang, H. C.

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
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Chen, L. J.

Y. J. Lu, C. H. Chang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, H. L. Hsu, L. J. Chen, Y. T. Lin, and R. Nishikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123303 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

Gao, R. X.

Hsu, H. L.

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Jeong, C. H.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 11, 3590 (2008).
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Ji, W. Y.

Jiang, X. Y.

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[CrossRef]

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H. Kanno, Y. R. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 11, 3590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. T.

M. T. Lee and M. R. Tseng, Curr. Appl. Phys. 8, 616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Lim, J. T.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 11, 3590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

Y. J. Lu, C. H. Chang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, H. L. Hsu, L. J. Chen, Y. T. Lin, and R. Nishikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. T.

Y. J. Lu, C. H. Chang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, H. L. Hsu, L. J. Chen, Y. T. Lin, and R. Nishikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. J.

Y. J. Lu, C. H. Chang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, H. L. Hsu, L. J. Chen, Y. T. Lin, and R. Nishikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Nishikawa, R.

Y. J. Lu, C. H. Chang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, H. L. Hsu, L. J. Chen, Y. T. Lin, and R. Nishikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Siapkas, D. I.

Sullivan, B. T.

Sun, Y. R.

H. Kanno, Y. R. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tien, K. C.

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, M. R.

M. T. Lee and M. R. Tseng, Curr. Appl. Phys. 8, 616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

Y. J. Lu, C. H. Chang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, H. L. Hsu, L. J. Chen, Y. T. Lin, and R. Nishikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. F.

Xie, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, G. Y.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 11, 3590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Z.

Zhang, L. M.

Zhang, L. T.

Zhang, Z. L.

J. Cao, X. Y. Jiang, and Z. L. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 252108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Kanno, Y. R. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lu, C. H. Chang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, H. L. Hsu, L. J. Chen, Y. T. Lin, and R. Nishikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Cao, X. Y. Jiang, and Z. L. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 252108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys.

M. T. Lee and M. R. Tseng, Curr. Appl. Phys. 8, 616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Thin Solid Films

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 11, 3590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated round-trip phase changes for 95 nm organic layers between two electrodes and the phase changes on two electrodes, and the normalized measured EL spectra of the white devices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized measured EL spectra of device A at different viewing angles and voltage of 9 V . Inset, CIE coordinate of device A at different viewing angles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized measured EL spectra of device B at different viewing angles and voltage of 9 V . Inset, normalized measured EL spectra of device B at different voltages.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Voltage-current density-luminance and efficiency-voltage characteristics of the white devices.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflection of the anodes and the white devices.

Equations (1)

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i 4 π d i n i ( λ ) λ ϕ cathode ( 0 , λ ) ϕ anode ( 0 , λ ) = 2 m π ,

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