Abstract

The coupling characteristics of a hybrid coupler comprised of a long-range surface-plasmon-polariton (LRSPP) waveguide and a dielectric waveguide is analyzed with different detecting layers. Calculation results show that the coupling strength between the LRSPP mode and the dielectric-waveguide mode is rather sensitive to the refractive index of the detecting layer. This is promising to realize an integrated refractive index senor with high resolution better than 4×107 refractive index units or a modulator with rather low driving power and insert loss.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  2. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobisika, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. Marcuse, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 113 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Boltasseva, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Breukelaar, I.

Charbonneau, R.

Chen, C.

Ctyroký, J.

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fafard, S.

Feng, D.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobisika, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kjaer, K.

Lahoud, N.

Lambeck, P. V.

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, M. S.

Leosson, K.

Liu, F.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman, 1983), pp. 212-214.

Lyndin, N. M.

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 113 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mattiussi, G.

Musa, S.

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nenninger, G. G.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobisika, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Peng, J.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Rao, Y.

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scales, C.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman, 1983), pp. 212-214.

Tanev, S.

Tang, X.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tobisika, P.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobisika, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tzolov, V.

Usievich, B.

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wan, R.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobisika, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Sens. Actuators B (3)

J. Ctyroký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin, Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Nenninger, P. Tobisika, J. Homola, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 74, 145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman, 1983), pp. 212-214.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hybrid coupler structure with a dielectric waveguide (light gray layer), a metal LRSPP waveguide (dark gray layer), and a dielectric detecting layer on the metal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Magnetic field distribution Re { H y } of even and odd eigenmodes with different n det .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power from dielectric waveguide P out versus L in circumstances of different n det when the input is applied on the dielectric waveguide. Inset, corresponding field intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output power from dielectric waveguide P out as a function of n det with different L.

Equations (4)

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H ( x , y , z ) = j a j H j ( x , y ) e i β j z ,
a j = 1 2 ( E d × H j ) z ̑ d x ,
P out = 20 × lg { | 1 2 E d × [ j a j H j ( x , y ) e i β j L ] z ̑ d x | } = 20 × lg ( | j a j 2 e i β j L | ) .
Resolution = f pm Sensitivity = f pm × Δ n det Δ P out ,

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