Abstract

We demonstrate photonic crystal nanobeam cavities that support both TE- and TM-polarized modes, each with a Q factor greater than one million and a mode volume on the order of the cubic wavelength. We show that these orthogonally polarized modes have a tunable frequency separation and a high nonlinear spatial overlap. We expect these cavities to have a variety of applications in resonance-enhanced nonlinear optics.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (3)

2008 (5)

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofling, J. Heinrich, H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, and J. Seufert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Liscidini and L. Anreani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1883 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anreani, L.

M. Liscidini and L. Anreani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1883 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bahriz, M.

Belkin, M. A.

Bravo-Abad, J.

Burgess, I. B.

Capasso, F.

Chang, D. E.

M. W. McCutcheon, D. E. Chang, Y. Zhang, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, arXiv:0903.4706.

Charvolin, T.

Cojocaru, C.

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

Crisafulli, O.

De La Rue, R. M.

Deotare, P. B.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

Dunbar, L. A.

Englund, D.

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 4, 859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Faraon, A.

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 4, 859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, R.

Forchel, A.

S. Hofling, J. Heinrich, H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, and J. Seufert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frank, I. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fushman, I.

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 4, 859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

Giovannini, M.

Hadji, E.

Heinrich, J.

S. Hofling, J. Heinrich, H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, and J. Seufert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hennessy, K.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofling, S.

S. Hofling, J. Heinrich, H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, and J. Seufert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, H.

S. Hofling, J. Heinrich, H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, and J. Seufert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Högerle, C.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houdre, R.

Hoyler, N.

Hu, E.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton Press, 1995).

Johnson, N. P.

Johnson, S. G.

Kamp, M.

S. Hofling, J. Heinrich, H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, and J. Seufert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

Lalanne, P.

Lee, B. G.

Letartre, X.

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, A.

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liscidini, M.

M. Liscidini and L. Anreani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1883 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

Lukin, M. D.

M. W. McCutcheon, D. E. Chang, Y. Zhang, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, arXiv:0903.4706.

Mabuchi, H.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McCutcheon, M. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Burgess, A. W. Rodriguez, M. W. McCutcheon, J. Bravo-Abad, Y. Zhang, S. G. Johnson, and M. Loncar, Opt. Express 17, 9241 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. McCutcheon, D. E. Chang, Y. Zhang, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, arXiv:0903.4706.

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton Press, 1995).

Monnier, P.

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, V.

Notomi, M.

Painter, O.

Petroff, P.

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 4, 859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peyrade, D.

Picard, E.

Raineri, F.

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raj, R.

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reithmaier, J. P.

S. Hofling, J. Heinrich, H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, and J. Seufert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodier, J. C.

Rodriguez, A. W.

Scalari, G.

Scherer, A.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seufert, J.

S. Hofling, J. Heinrich, H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, and J. Seufert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sirigu, L.

Soljacic, M.

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, N.

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 4, 859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Surel, M.

Tandaechanurat, A.

Taniyama, H.

Velha, P.

Viktorovitch, P.

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 4, 859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wakayama, Y.

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton Press, 1995).

Zain, A. R. M.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Liscidini and L. Anreani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1883 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofling, J. Heinrich, H. Hofmann, M. Kamp, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, and J. Seufert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hennessy, C. Högerle, E. Hu, A. Badolato, and A. Imamoglu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 4, 859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (1)

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton Press, 1995).

M. W. McCutcheon, D. E. Chang, Y. Zhang, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, arXiv:0903.4706.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the nanobeam design, showing the nanobeam thickness ( d y ) and width ( d x ) and the hole spacing ( a ) . (b) TE 00 and TM 00 transverse mode profiles for a ridge waveguide with d y = 3 d x . (c) Transmission spectra for the TE 00 (light) and TM 00 (dark) modes. The shaded areas indicate the bandgaps for both modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the 1D photonic crystal nanobeam cavity. (b), (c) Mode profiles of the electric field components E TE , x and E TM , y for the cavity design with d x = a , d y = 3 a . (d), (e) Spatial Fourier transform of the electric field component profiles ( E TE , x and E TM , y ) in the x z plane ( y = 0 ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) TE 00 (light) and TM 00 (dark) cavity mode resonant frequencies (dotted curves) as a function of the nanobeam thickness. The bandgap regions of the two modes are shaded. The frequency separation ( δ ω ) of the two modes with the TE-like mode wavelength fixed at 1.5 μ m is also plotted. (b), (c) Dependence of the Q factor and nonlinear overlap factor γ on the nanobeam thickness.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Parameters of the higher-order cavity modes for the design with d x = a , d y = 3 a .

Equations (1)

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γ ϵ r , d d d 3 r i , j , i j E TE , i E TM , j d 3 r ϵ r | E TE | 2 d 3 r ϵ r | E TM | 2 ,

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