Abstract

Color differences are determined by illumination, the spectral reflectance of objects, and the spectral sensitivity of the imaging sensor. We explore the optimal illumination conditions that best separate one object from another. Given two objects with distinct spectra, we derive the optimal illumination spectrum to maximize their color distance with a plain RGB camera. In practice, it is crucial to compose the most appropriate illuminations using available lighting sources, since creating an arbitrary illumination spectrum is unrealistic. Therefore, we derive the optimal linear combination of the provided illumination sources. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of the methods through experiments.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Chi, H. Yoo, and M. Ben-Ezra, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10.1007/s 11263-008-0176-y (2008).
  2. J. Park, M. Lee, M. D. Grossberg, and S. K. Nayar, in Proceedings of the IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-8.
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. W. Fletcher-Holmes and A. R. Harbvey, J. Opt. A 7, S298 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).
  5. K. Gono, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohyama, Opt. Lett. 29, 971 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Anton and R. C. Busby, Contemporary Linear Algebra (Wiley, 2003).

2006 (1)

M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).

2005 (1)

D. W. Fletcher-Holmes and A. R. Harbvey, J. Opt. A 7, S298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anton, H.

H. Anton and R. C. Busby, Contemporary Linear Algebra (Wiley, 2003).

Ben-Ezra, M.

C. Chi, H. Yoo, and M. Ben-Ezra, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10.1007/s 11263-008-0176-y (2008).

Busby, R. C.

H. Anton and R. C. Busby, Contemporary Linear Algebra (Wiley, 2003).

Chi, C.

C. Chi, H. Yoo, and M. Ben-Ezra, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10.1007/s 11263-008-0176-y (2008).

Fletcher-Holmes, D. W.

D. W. Fletcher-Holmes and A. R. Harbvey, J. Opt. A 7, S298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).

Gono, K.

K. Gono, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohyama, Opt. Lett. 29, 971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grossberg, M. D.

J. Park, M. Lee, M. D. Grossberg, and S. K. Nayar, in Proceedings of the IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-8.
[CrossRef]

Haneishi, H.

M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).

Harbvey, A. R.

D. W. Fletcher-Holmes and A. R. Harbvey, J. Opt. A 7, S298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, M.

K. Gono, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohyama, Opt. Lett. 29, 971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwama, R.

M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).

Kanazawa, H.

M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).

Kishimoto, J.

M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).

Kobayashi, M.

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

J. Park, M. Lee, M. D. Grossberg, and S. K. Nayar, in Proceedings of the IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-8.
[CrossRef]

Nayar, S. K.

J. Park, M. Lee, M. D. Grossberg, and S. K. Nayar, in Proceedings of the IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-8.
[CrossRef]

Obi, T.

K. Gono, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohyama, Opt. Lett. 29, 971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, N.

M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).

K. Gono, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohyama, Opt. Lett. 29, 971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. Park, M. Lee, M. D. Grossberg, and S. K. Nayar, in Proceedings of the IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-8.
[CrossRef]

Sambongi, M.

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sano, Y.

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, M.

M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).

K. Gono, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohyama, Opt. Lett. 29, 971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, H.

C. Chi, H. Yoo, and M. Ben-Ezra, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10.1007/s 11263-008-0176-y (2008).

Yoshida, S.

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

D. W. Fletcher-Holmes and A. R. Harbvey, J. Opt. A 7, S298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Sambongi, M. Igarashi, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, M. Kobayashi, Y. Sano, S. Yoshida, and K. Gono, Opt. Rev. 9, 238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, H. Fukuda, J. Kishimoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Tsuchida, R. Iwama, and N. Ohyama, Proc. SPIE 6062, 129 (2006).

Other (3)

C. Chi, H. Yoo, and M. Ben-Ezra, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10.1007/s 11263-008-0176-y (2008).

J. Park, M. Lee, M. D. Grossberg, and S. K. Nayar, in Proceedings of the IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-8.
[CrossRef]

H. Anton and R. C. Busby, Contemporary Linear Algebra (Wiley, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: our endoscope system using controllable illumination. It consists of an endoscope, an RGB camera, lens array, LEDs, and an LED controller. Right: spectra of the five types of LEDs (solid lines) and the spectral responses of the three color channels of the PointGrey Dragonfly Express camera (dashed lines) used in our system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multispectral image using the endoscope system shown in Fig. 1. The image is of a human throat. The spectral reflectance of the tissue is shown on the left, and the blood vessel reflectance spectrum is shown on the right.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of relighting results using the derived optimal illumination, xenon lamp, white LEDs, and halogen lamp (clockwise). These reillumination spectra are normalized for fair comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left, multispectral relighting result using the optimized LED spectrum. Right, optimized LED spectra. The dashed curve is the weighted sum of the LED spectra.

Equations (9)

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I k = c k ( λ ) s ( λ ) l ( λ ) d λ .
I k = c k T S l ,
d 2 = k [ c k T ( S a S b ) l ] 2 .
l opt = arg max l k [ c k T ( S a S b ) l ] 2 , l = 1 ,
l opt = arg max l l T [ k q k q k T ] l .
l opt = e ̃ 1 ,
x opt = arg max x k [ c k T ( S a S b ) L x ] 2 ,
x opt = arg max x x T [ k w k w k T ] x ,
l composed = L x opt .

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