Abstract

We study the thermal bleaching process of photodarkening-induced loss in ytterbium-doped fibers. The observed power-law time dependence of the normalized absorption coefficient is well represented by the thermal decay model of Erdogan et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994)] . Using this model, we derive the activation energy associated with thermal recovery of the induced loss to prephotodarkened state. For the studied commercial 20μm core diameter large-mode-area fiber, the energy distribution consists of a single peak, located at 1.32eV with a FWHM of 0.31eV. The results presented are of particular importance to understanding photodarkening and bleaching processes in high-power fiber lasers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, M. J. Söderlund, J. Koplow, J. Koponen, A. Iho, and S. Honkanen, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952D (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, J. P. Koplow, and S. Honkanen, Opt. Express 17, 9940 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

1994

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Åberg, D.

Ahrens, R.

S. Kannan, M. LuValle, R. Ahrens, and P. Lemaire, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 3 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper ThG5-1.

Andrejco, M.

J. Jasapara, M. Andrejco, D. DiGiovanni, and R. Windeler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuQ5.

Bufetov, I. A.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, in Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CJ3-1-THU.

Chatigny, S.

B. Morasse, S. Chatigny, E. Gagnon, C. Hovington, J.-P. Martin, and J.-P. De Sandro, Proc. SPIE 6453, 64530H-1 (2007).

De Sandro, J.-P.

B. Morasse, S. Chatigny, E. Gagnon, C. Hovington, J.-P. Martin, and J.-P. De Sandro, Proc. SPIE 6453, 64530H-1 (2007).

Dianov, E. M.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, in Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CJ3-1-THU.

DiGiovanni, D.

J. Jasapara, M. Andrejco, D. DiGiovanni, and R. Windeler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuQ5.

Engholm, M.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, E.

B. Morasse, S. Chatigny, E. Gagnon, C. Hovington, J.-P. Martin, and J.-P. De Sandro, Proc. SPIE 6453, 64530H-1 (2007).

Hoffman, H. J.

Hoffmann, H. J.

Honkanen, S.

M. J. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, J. P. Koplow, and S. Honkanen, Opt. Express 17, 9940 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, M. J. Söderlund, J. Koplow, J. Koponen, A. Iho, and S. Honkanen, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952D (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and S. Honkanen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America2009), paper CE3.3.

Hotoleanu, M.

Hovington, C.

B. Morasse, S. Chatigny, E. Gagnon, C. Hovington, J.-P. Martin, and J.-P. De Sandro, Proc. SPIE 6453, 64530H-1 (2007).

Iho, A.

J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, M. J. Söderlund, J. Koplow, J. Koponen, A. Iho, and S. Honkanen, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jasapara, J.

J. Jasapara, M. Andrejco, D. DiGiovanni, and R. Windeler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuQ5.

Jetschke, S.

Kannan, S.

S. Kannan, M. LuValle, R. Ahrens, and P. Lemaire, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 3 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper ThG5-1.

Kirchof, J.

Kliner, D.

Koplow, J.

J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, M. J. Söderlund, J. Koplow, J. Koponen, A. Iho, and S. Honkanen, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952D (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Koponen, M. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, and M. Hotoleanu, Appl. Opt. 47, 1247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koplow, J. P.

Koponen, J.

J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, M. J. Söderlund, J. Koplow, J. Koponen, A. Iho, and S. Honkanen, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952D (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Koponen, M. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, and M. Hotoleanu, Appl. Opt. 47, 1247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koponen, J. J.

Lemaire, P.

S. Kannan, M. LuValle, R. Ahrens, and P. Lemaire, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 3 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper ThG5-1.

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

LuValle, M.

S. Kannan, M. LuValle, R. Ahrens, and P. Lemaire, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 3 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper ThG5-1.

Martin, J.-P.

B. Morasse, S. Chatigny, E. Gagnon, C. Hovington, J.-P. Martin, and J.-P. De Sandro, Proc. SPIE 6453, 64530H-1 (2007).

Melkumov, M. A.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, in Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CJ3-1-THU.

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Montiel i Ponsoda, J. J.

J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, M. J. Söderlund, J. Koplow, J. Koponen, A. Iho, and S. Honkanen, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952D (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, J. P. Koplow, and S. Honkanen, Opt. Express 17, 9940 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and S. Honkanen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America2009), paper CE3.3.

Morasse, B.

B. Morasse, S. Chatigny, E. Gagnon, C. Hovington, J.-P. Martin, and J.-P. De Sandro, Proc. SPIE 6453, 64530H-1 (2007).

Norin, L.

Röpke, U.

Shubin, A. V.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, in Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CJ3-1-THU.

Smirnow, S. A.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, in Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CJ3-1-THU.

Söderlund, M.

J. Koponen, M. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, and M. Hotoleanu, Appl. Opt. 47, 1247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and S. Honkanen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America2009), paper CE3.3.

Söderlund, M. J.

Tammela, S. K. T.

Unger, S.

Windeler, R.

J. Jasapara, M. Andrejco, D. DiGiovanni, and R. Windeler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuQ5.

Yashkov, M. V.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, in Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CJ3-1-THU.

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, M. J. Söderlund, J. Koplow, J. Koponen, A. Iho, and S. Honkanen, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952D (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Morasse, S. Chatigny, E. Gagnon, C. Hovington, J.-P. Martin, and J.-P. De Sandro, Proc. SPIE 6453, 64530H-1 (2007).

Other

J. Jasapara, M. Andrejco, D. DiGiovanni, and R. Windeler, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuQ5.

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, in Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CJ3-1-THU.

S. Kannan, M. LuValle, R. Ahrens, and P. Lemaire, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 3 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper ThG5-1.

M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and S. Honkanen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe CLEO, Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America2009), paper CE3.3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Change of normalized absorption coefficient Δ α n as a function of time at different bleaching temperatures. The data sets are fitted with the power-law function of Eq. (1). The numerical values for best-fit parameters are shown next to their respective data sets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature dependence of the power-law factor A and exponent β (inset graph). Data points denoted by black squares are obtained from a nonlinear fit in which β is allowed to vary freely, while data points denoted by crosses assume the simple linear dependence β = T T 0 . The straight line is a best fit to the first data set (squares). The solid line in the inset graph is the function β = T T 0 , and the dashed line is a best fit to the experimental data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized absorption coefficient as a function the demarcation energy, E d . The attempt frequency has been set to 2.0 GHz . The dashed curve is a best fit of the data to Eq. (3). The inset graph shows the initial defect energy distribution as calculated from the first derivative of Eq. (3).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Measured Fiber Parameters

Equations (3)

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Δ α n ( t ) = 1 1 + ( t τ ) β ,
E d = k B T ln ( ν 0 t ) ,
Δ α n ( E d ) = 1 1 + exp [ ( E d Δ E ) k B T 0 ] .

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