Abstract

This work presents a transflective liquid-crystal (LC) display with a single cell gap in a dual-alignment configuration. This dual structure was fabricated via single-step laser-light exposure through a photomask. The vertical alignment induced by nanoparticles of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes can be changed into a homogeneous alignment via absorption of photoexcited azo dye. The LC molecules at the transmissive and reflective pixels are homogeneous and hybrid alignment, respectively, at which optimal phase retardations of half and quarter wavelengths are achieved.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. J. Jeon, S. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, E. M. Jo, Y. J. Choi, M.-H. Lee, T. J. Chung, and S. H. Lee, in International Display Research Conference (2008), p. 141.
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchuk, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Pan, and C.-T. Hsieh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6392 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W.-Y. Teng, S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, Y.-R. Lin, C.-C. Liao, and W.-K. Chin, Opt. Lett. 33, 1663 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jan, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Opt. Express 15, 2900 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Matsumoto, M. Kawamoto, and K. Mizunoya, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3842 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jan, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Opt. Express 15, 2900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Pan, and C.-T. Hsieh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. Shiraishi, N. Toshima, K. Maeda, H. Yoshikawa, J. Xu, and S. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2845 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchuk, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1976

S. Matsumoto, M. Kawamoto, and K. Mizunoya, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3842 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-J.

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, W.-K.

Choi, Y. J.

E. J. Jeon, S. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, E. M. Jo, Y. J. Choi, M.-H. Lee, T. J. Chung, and S. H. Lee, in International Display Research Conference (2008), p. 141.

Chu, K.-L.

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chung, T. J.

E. J. Jeon, S. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, E. M. Jo, Y. J. Choi, M.-H. Lee, T. J. Chung, and S. H. Lee, in International Display Research Conference (2008), p. 141.

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jan, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Opt. Express 15, 2900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, H.-R.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchuk, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-T.

C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Pan, and C.-T. Hsieh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Pan, and C.-T. Hsieh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hung, S.-Y.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jan, H.-C.

Jau, H.-C.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeng, S.-C.

W.-Y. Teng, S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, Y.-R. Lin, C.-C. Liao, and W.-K. Chin, Opt. Lett. 33, 1663 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, E. J.

E. J. Jeon, S. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, E. M. Jo, Y. J. Choi, M.-H. Lee, T. J. Chung, and S. H. Lee, in International Display Research Conference (2008), p. 141.

Jo, E. M.

E. J. Jeon, S. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, E. M. Jo, Y. J. Choi, M.-H. Lee, T. J. Chung, and S. H. Lee, in International Display Research Conference (2008), p. 141.

Kawamoto, M.

S. Matsumoto, M. Kawamoto, and K. Mizunoya, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3842 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

E. J. Jeon, S. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, E. M. Jo, Y. J. Choi, M.-H. Lee, T. J. Chung, and S. H. Lee, in International Display Research Conference (2008), p. 141.

Kobayashi, S.

Y. Shiraishi, N. Toshima, K. Maeda, H. Yoshikawa, J. Xu, and S. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2845 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kresse, H.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchuk, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-W.

W.-Y. Teng, S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, Y.-R. Lin, C.-C. Liao, and W.-K. Chin, Opt. Lett. 33, 1663 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

E. J. Jeon, S. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, E. M. Jo, Y. J. Choi, M.-H. Lee, T. J. Chung, and S. H. Lee, in International Display Research Conference (2008), p. 141.

Lee, S. H.

E. J. Jeon, S. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, E. M. Jo, Y. J. Choi, M.-H. Lee, T. J. Chung, and S. H. Lee, in International Display Research Conference (2008), p. 141.

Lee, W.

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-C.

W.-Y. Teng, S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, Y.-R. Lin, C.-C. Liao, and W.-K. Chin, Opt. Lett. 33, 1663 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. J.

E. J. Jeon, S. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, E. M. Jo, Y. J. Choi, M.-H. Lee, T. J. Chung, and S. H. Lee, in International Display Research Conference (2008), p. 141.

Lin, L.-C.

Lin, T.-H.

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jan, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Opt. Express 15, 2900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-R.

Maeda, K.

Y. Shiraishi, N. Toshima, K. Maeda, H. Yoshikawa, J. Xu, and S. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2845 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, S.

S. Matsumoto, M. Kawamoto, and K. Mizunoya, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3842 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mizunoya, K.

S. Matsumoto, M. Kawamoto, and K. Mizunoya, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3842 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H.-C.

C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Pan, and C.-T. Hsieh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchuk, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Yu.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchuk, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.-C.

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, Y.

Y. Shiraishi, N. Toshima, K. Maeda, H. Yoshikawa, J. Xu, and S. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2845 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teng, W.-Y.

Toshima, N.

Y. Shiraishi, N. Toshima, K. Maeda, H. Yoshikawa, J. Xu, and S. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2845 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-Y.

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-L.

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Y. Shiraishi, N. Toshima, K. Maeda, H. Yoshikawa, J. Xu, and S. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2845 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yaroshchuk, O.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchuk, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, H.

Y. Shiraishi, N. Toshima, K. Maeda, H. Yoshikawa, J. Xu, and S. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2845 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shiraishi, N. Toshima, K. Maeda, H. Yoshikawa, J. Xu, and S. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2845 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Kuo, S.-C. Jeng, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Matsumoto, M. Kawamoto, and K. Mizunoya, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3842 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Pan, and C.-T. Hsieh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 6392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

A. Glushchenko, H. Kresse, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and O. Yaroshchuk, Liq. Cryst. 23, 241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

E. J. Jeon, S. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, E. M. Jo, Y. J. Choi, M.-H. Lee, T. J. Chung, and S. H. Lee, in International Display Research Conference (2008), p. 141.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed transflective LC cell doped with nanoparticles and azo dye in a single cell-gap configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase retardation of the POSS- and MR-doped LC in a hybrid aligned cell as a function of pumping duration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission-voltage curves of the pumped (homogeneous) region and nonpumped (hybrid) region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase retardation-voltage curves of the pumped (homogeneous) region and the nonpumped (hybrid) region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microscopic textures of the proposed transflective LC cell observed under crossed polarizers. The applied voltages were (a) 3.2, (b) 5, (c) 7, and (d) 10 V .

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