Abstract

We have studied the noise in the optical rotation of a linearly polarized laser beam transmitted through a spin-polarized Cs133 vapor as a function of its frequency detuning from the optical resonance. Our measurements demonstrate the direct conversion of the laser-frequency noise into optical rotation noise by the dispersive response of the atomic vapor. We describe this noise-conversion process in terms of a simple model that can be used to optimize the performance of atomic devices, such as atomic magnetometers, that use optical rotation as their operational signal.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

2007

P. Schwindt, B. Lindseth, S. Knappe, V. Shah, J. Kitching, and L. Liew, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081102-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 42, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, and W. Weidemann, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. C. Camparo and J. G. Coffer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Allred, J. C.

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 42, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M.

J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Camparo, J.

J. Camparo, J. Coffer, and J. Townsend, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Camparo, J. C.

J. C. Camparo and J. G. Coffer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Camparo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coffer, J.

Coffer, J. G.

J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Camparo and J. G. Coffer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, L. S.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Failache, H.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Felinto, D.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gawlik, W.

Hollberg, L.

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, and W. Weidemann, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, D. F.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

P. Schwindt, B. Lindseth, S. Knappe, V. Shah, J. Kitching, and L. Liew, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081102-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, and W. Weidemann, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, S.

P. Schwindt, B. Lindseth, S. Knappe, V. Shah, J. Kitching, and L. Liew, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081102-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, and W. Weidemann, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kominis, I. K.

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 42, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kornack, T. W.

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 42, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lewoczko, W.

Lezama, A.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Liew, L.

P. Schwindt, B. Lindseth, S. Knappe, V. Shah, J. Kitching, and L. Liew, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081102-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lindseth, B.

P. Schwindt, B. Lindseth, S. Knappe, V. Shah, J. Kitching, and L. Liew, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081102-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J.

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzveig, P.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pustelny, S.

Romalis, M. V.

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 42, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

Sautenkov, V. A.

Schwindt, P.

P. Schwindt, B. Lindseth, S. Knappe, V. Shah, J. Kitching, and L. Liew, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081102-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

Shah, V.

P. Schwindt, B. Lindseth, S. Knappe, V. Shah, J. Kitching, and L. Liew, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081102-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, J.

Valente, P.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varzhapetyan, T. S.

Vukicevic, N.

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, and W. Weidemann, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, W.

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, and W. Weidemann, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wynands, R.

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, and W. Weidemann, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yashchuk, V. V.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zolotorev, M.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwindt, B. Lindseth, S. Knappe, V. Shah, J. Kitching, and L. Liew, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081102-1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, and W. Weidemann, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Phys.

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 42, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Camparo and J. G. Coffer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Lezama, Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of experimental setup. Inset, polarimeter setup to acquire the I + and I components of the transmitted probe as indicated in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observed noise as function of probe-light-frequency detuning for OD = 0.55 . Dashed line, BPD electronic noise; +, data noise in the absence of pump beam; ▷, data noise when the pump beam is present; ○, data noise when the pump beam is present and the polarimeter is balanced at each point, as indicated in text. Solid curves, fit to the noise data. Inset, optical rotation signal (blue trace) and optical rotation angle (red trace).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a1), (a2) Optical rotation signal and optical rotation angle [× data points, line-data fit using Eq. (2)] for OD = 0.35 and OD = 1.08 , respectively. (b1), (b2) Noise density normalized to maximum noise value. Open circles, observed noise. Solid curve, noise level predicted by Eq. (3).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S OR = 2 I + I sin ( Δ φ OR + 2 θ λ 2 ) .
Δ φ OR = σ o n l P z ( x 1 + x 2 ) ,
δ S OR = 2 I + I | Δ φ OR ν L | δ ν L .

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