Abstract

Fabrication and characterization of guided-mode resonance filters made by soft lithography are presented. As these resonant elements are highly sensitive to parametric variations, it is important to develop methods for their reliable fabrication. Thus, we provide a fabrication process that is consistent and simple, employing an elastomeric mold and a UV-curable organic–inorganic hybrid material. Measured spectra show 81% reflectance and 8% transmittance at a resonance wavelength of 1538nm. The filter’s linewidth is 4.5nm, and the sideband reflectance is 5%. Experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 550 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Rev. 99, 1823 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Schmid and B. Michel, Macromolecules 33, 3042 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. W. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 5314 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T.-W. Lee, O. Mitrofanov, and J. W. P. Hsu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1683 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. D. Tang, A. P. Golden, and J. Tien, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 12988 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Rogers and R. G. Nuzzo, Mater. Today 8, 50 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D.-H. Lee, K.-H. Park, L.-Y. Hong, and D.-P. Kim, Sens. Actuators, A 135, 895 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Sim, E.-S. Lee, W.-S. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, Langmuir 21, 9390 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W.-S. Kim, D.-G. Choi, and B.-S. Bae, Nanotechnology 17, 3319 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W.-S. Kim, K.-S. Kim, Y.-J. Eo, K. B. Yoon, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 15, 465 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T.-H. Lee, J. H. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1657 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. I. A. Avrutsky and V. A. Sychugov, J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Peng, and G. M. Morris, Opt. Lett. 21, 549 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. D. L. Brundrett, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, Opt. Lett. 23, 700 (1998).
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  18. P. S. Priambodo, T. A. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. S. Liu, S. Tibuleac, D. Shin, P. P. Young, and R. Magnusson, Opt. Lett. 23, 1556 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D.-H. Lee, K.-H. Park, L.-Y. Hong, and D.-P. Kim, Sens. Actuators, A 135, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

W.-S. Kim, D.-G. Choi, and B.-S. Bae, Nanotechnology 17, 3319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lee, J. H. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

W.-S. Kim, K.-S. Kim, Y.-J. Eo, K. B. Yoon, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 15, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers and R. G. Nuzzo, Mater. Today 8, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Sim, E.-S. Lee, W.-S. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, Langmuir 21, 9390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-W. Lee, O. Mitrofanov, and J. W. P. Hsu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

M. D. Tang, A. P. Golden, and J. Tien, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 12988 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kemme, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, T. R. Carter, and S. Samora, Proc. SPIE 5177, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Priambodo, T. A. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. W. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 5314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Schmid and B. Michel, Macromolecules 33, 3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Rev. 99, 1823 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1996 (2)

S. Peng, and G. M. Morris, Opt. Lett. 21, 549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

I. A. Avrutsky and V. A. Sychugov, J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 735, 894, (1985).
[CrossRef]

Avrutsky, I. A.

I. A. Avrutsky and V. A. Sychugov, J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B.-S.

W.-S. Kim, D.-G. Choi, and B.-S. Bae, Nanotechnology 17, 3319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lee, J. H. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W.-S. Kim, K.-S. Kim, Y.-J. Eo, K. B. Yoon, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 15, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Sim, E.-S. Lee, W.-S. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, Langmuir 21, 9390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Britton, B.

K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brundrett, D. L.

Carter, T. R.

S. A. Kemme, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, T. R. Carter, and S. Samora, Proc. SPIE 5177, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.-G.

W.-S. Kim, D.-G. Choi, and B.-S. Bae, Nanotechnology 17, 3319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Sim, E.-S. Lee, W.-S. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, Langmuir 21, 9390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Donkor, E.

K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eo, Y.-J.

W.-S. Kim, K.-S. Kim, Y.-J. Eo, K. B. Yoon, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 15, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Glytsis, E. N.

Golden, A. P.

M. D. Tang, A. P. Golden, and J. Tien, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 12988 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, L.-Y.

D.-H. Lee, K.-H. Park, L.-Y. Hong, and D.-P. Kim, Sens. Actuators, A 135, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. W. P.

T.-W. Lee, O. Mitrofanov, and J. W. P. Hsu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-H.

D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Sim, E.-S. Lee, W.-S. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, Langmuir 21, 9390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemme, S. A.

S. A. Kemme, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, T. R. Carter, and S. Samora, Proc. SPIE 5177, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-P.

D.-H. Lee, K.-H. Park, L.-Y. Hong, and D.-P. Kim, Sens. Actuators, A 135, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

T.-H. Lee, J. H. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-S.

W.-S. Kim, K.-S. Kim, Y.-J. Eo, K. B. Yoon, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 15, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.-S.

W.-S. Kim, D.-G. Choi, and B.-S. Bae, Nanotechnology 17, 3319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W.-S. Kim, K.-S. Kim, Y.-J. Eo, K. B. Yoon, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 15, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Sim, E.-S. Lee, W.-S. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, Langmuir 21, 9390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaComb, R.

K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-H.

D.-H. Lee, K.-H. Park, L.-Y. Hong, and D.-P. Kim, Sens. Actuators, A 135, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E.-S.

D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Sim, E.-S. Lee, W.-S. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, Langmuir 21, 9390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. J.

K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-H.

T.-H. Lee, J. H. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-W.

T.-W. Lee, O. Mitrofanov, and J. W. P. Hsu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. S.

Love, J. C.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. W. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 5314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Priambodo, T. A. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Liu, S. Tibuleac, D. Shin, P. P. Young, and R. Magnusson, Opt. Lett. 23, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maldonado, T. A.

P. S. Priambodo, T. A. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michel, B.

H. Schmid and B. Michel, Macromolecules 33, 3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

T.-W. Lee, O. Mitrofanov, and J. W. P. Hsu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 735, 894, (1985).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

Nuzzo, R. G.

J. A. Rogers and R. G. Nuzzo, Mater. Today 8, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Odom, T. W.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. W. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 5314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

D.-H. Lee, K.-H. Park, L.-Y. Hong, and D.-P. Kim, Sens. Actuators, A 135, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paul, K. E.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. W. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 5314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Rev. 99, 1823 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, S.

Peters, D. W.

S. A. Kemme, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, T. R. Carter, and S. Samora, Proc. SPIE 5177, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Priambodo, P. S.

P. S. Priambodo, T. A. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

J. A. Rogers and R. G. Nuzzo, Mater. Today 8, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Rev. 99, 1823 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, D.

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Samora, S.

S. A. Kemme, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, T. R. Carter, and S. Samora, Proc. SPIE 5177, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, H.

H. Schmid and B. Michel, Macromolecules 33, 3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharon, A.

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.

Shokooh-Saremi, M.

K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silva, H.

K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sim, Y.-S.

D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Sim, E.-S. Lee, W.-S. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, Langmuir 21, 9390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sychugov, V. A.

I. A. Avrutsky and V. A. Sychugov, J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tang, M. D.

M. D. Tang, A. P. Golden, and J. Tien, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 12988 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tibuleac, S.

Tien, J.

M. D. Tang, A. P. Golden, and J. Tien, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 12988 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. S.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

S. A. Kemme, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, T. R. Carter, and S. Samora, Proc. SPIE 5177, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Rev. 99, 1823 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. W.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. W. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 5314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, D. B.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. W. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 5314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Rev. 99, 1823 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, K. B.

W.-S. Kim, K.-S. Kim, Y.-J. Eo, K. B. Yoon, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 15, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, P. P.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

T.-W. Lee, O. Mitrofanov, and J. W. P. Hsu, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Priambodo, T. A. Maldonado, and R. Magnusson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Rev. 99, 1823 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

K. J. Lee, R. LaComb, B. Britton, M. Shokooh-Saremi, H. Silva, E. Donkor, Y. Ding, and R. Magnusson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. D. Tang, A. P. Golden, and J. Tien, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 12988 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

W.-S. Kim, K.-S. Kim, Y.-J. Eo, K. B. Yoon, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 15, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lee, J. H. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, J. Mater. Chem. 16, 1657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

I. A. Avrutsky and V. A. Sychugov, J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Sim, E.-S. Lee, W.-S. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, Langmuir 21, 9390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. W. Whitesides, Langmuir 18, 5314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

H. Schmid and B. Michel, Macromolecules 33, 3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today (1)

J. A. Rogers and R. G. Nuzzo, Mater. Today 8, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

W.-S. Kim, D.-G. Choi, and B.-S. Bae, Nanotechnology 17, 3319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 735, 894, (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. A. Kemme, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, T. R. Carter, and S. Samora, Proc. SPIE 5177, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators, A (1)

D.-H. Lee, K.-H. Park, L.-Y. Hong, and D.-P. Kim, Sens. Actuators, A 135, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic fabrication process yielding a GMR filter by MIMIC [1].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental spectral response of a fabricated GMR filter for TE polarization (electric field normal to the plane of incidence). The experimental data are corrected for a 4% reflection at the backside of the substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated spectral filter response with parameters corresponding to those of the fabricated filter for TE polarization. The parameters are as follows: thicknesses d 1 = 333 nm , d 2 = 251 nm ; refractive indices n H = 1.51 , n L = 1.00 , n 2 = 1.88 , n c = 1.00 , n s = 1.50 ; grating period Λ = 1111 nm ; incident angle θ in = 10.0 ° .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional view of a fabricated GMR filter. The size of the image is 5 μ m × 5 μ m . A platinum (Pt) layer was deposited for protection of the filter during ion-beam sectioning.

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