Abstract

Following a recent theoretical suggestion and microwave experiments, we fabricate photonic metamaterials composed of pairs of twisted gold crosses using two successive electron-beam-lithography steps and intermediate planarization via a spin-on dielectric. The resulting two effective resonances of the coupled system lie in the 12μm wavelength regime and exhibit pronounced circular dichroism, while the circular polarization conversion is very small. In between the two resonances, we find a fairly broad spectral regime with strong optical activity, i.e., with a pure rotation of incident linear polarization. The measured optical transmittance spectra agree well with theory.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (6)

M. Wegener and S. Linden, Physics 2, 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Helgert, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. Pshenay-Severin, E.-B. Kley, A. Chipouline, A. Tünnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, Opt. Lett. 34, 704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 315, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 32, 856 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

J. B. Pendry, Science 306, 1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Subramania and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. S. Schwanecke, A. Krasavin, D. M. Bagnall, A. Potts, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnall, D. M.

A. S. Schwanecke, A. Krasavin, D. M. Bagnall, A. Potts, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brosseau, C.

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light (Wiley, 1998).

Cai, W. S.

Chen, Y.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Chipouline, A.

Decker, M.

Dolling, G.

Dong, J.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

Enkrich, C.

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Helgert, C.

Ino, Y.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

Klein, M. W.

Kley, E.-B.

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A.

A. S. Schwanecke, A. Krasavin, D. M. Bagnall, A. Potts, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, D. H.

Lederer, F.

Li, J.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. Y.

G. Subramania and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Liu, H.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menzel, C.

Park, Y.-S.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, Science 306, 1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

Plum, E.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Potts, A.

A. S. Schwanecke, A. Krasavin, D. M. Bagnall, A. Potts, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pshenay-Severin, E.

Rockstuhl, C.

Rogacheva, A. V.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, N.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schwanecke, A. S.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Schwanecke, A. Krasavin, D. M. Bagnall, A. Potts, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 315, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 30, 3198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramania, G.

G. Subramania and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Y.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

Turunen, J.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallius, T.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Werner, D. H.

Yuan, H. K.

Zayats, A. V.

A. S. Schwanecke, A. Krasavin, D. M. Bagnall, A. Potts, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Schwanecke, A. Krasavin, D. M. Bagnall, A. Potts, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 30, 3198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Subramania and S. Y. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 79, 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Schwanecke, A. Krasavin, D. M. Bagnall, A. Potts, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physics (1)

M. Wegener and S. Linden, Physics 2, 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 315, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Science 306, 1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light (Wiley, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of the chiral metamaterial structure composed of right-handed twisted gold crosses. (b) Oblique-view electron micrograph of a fabricated sample and (c) normal-view large-area electron micrograph of a right-handed structure. The insets show close-ups.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured normal-incidence transmittance and conversion spectra (logarithmic scale) of the twisted-cross structure shown in Fig. 1. The left column is for an lh structure, the right column for an rh structure. Transmittance for LCP and RCP is plotted in gray (red online) and black (blue online), respectively. The conversion into the other circular polarization is extremely small and, hence, shown by the same color. In contrast, we do find significant conversion of linear polarization (second row) in between the two resonances, where the intensity transmittances for the two incident circular polarizations are closely similar. This regime highlighted in gray delivers pure and large optical activity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated normal-incidence transmittance and conversion spectra of the twisted-cross structure shown in Fig. 1a. The conversions for LCP and RCP are below 5 × 10 5 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated rotation angle φ (solid) and tangent of the ellipticity angle e (dashed) of lh and rh structures for linearly polarized incident light.

Equations (1)

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φ = ( n LCP n RCP ) π λ l ,

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