Abstract

We experimentally study the characteristics of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation in the femtosecond regime. Specifically, the intensity histograms obtained from spectrally filtering the super continuum exhibit the L-shaped characteristics typical of extreme-value phenomena on both the long-wavelength and short-wavelength edges of the spectrum owing to cross-phase modulation and soliton-dispersive wave coupling. Furthermore, the form of the histogram on the long-wavelength edge varies from L-shaped to quasi-Gaussian as wavelengths closer to the pump are included in the filtered measurements. Our observations are in agreement with numerical simulations.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 16, 3644 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. B 94, 187 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. Dudley, and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 45, 217 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, and H. Ludvigsen, Opt. Express 12, 4614 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, Nat. Photonics 1, 653 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. B 94, 187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. Dudley, and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 45, 217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 16, 3644 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, Nat. Photonics 1, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. Dudley, and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 45, 217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dias, F.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. Dudley, and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 45, 217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. Dudley, and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 45, 217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. B 94, 187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 16, 3644 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. Dudley, and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 45, 217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. B 94, 187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 16, 3644 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. Dudley, and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 45, 217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. B 94, 187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 16, 3644 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, and H. Ludvigsen, Opt. Express 12, 4614 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorbach, A. V.

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, Nat. Photonics 1, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koonath, P.

D. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lafargue, C.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. Dudley, and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 45, 217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lehtonen, M.

Ludvigsen, H.

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skryabin, D. V.

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, Nat. Photonics 1, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solli, D.

D. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taki, M.

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. B 94, 187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. Dudley, and B. Eggleton, Electron. Lett. 45, 217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, Nat. Photonics 1, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, Nature 450, 1054 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, Phys. Lett. A 373, 675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(left) Measured spectrum and (right) corresponding histogram of the time series when filtering above 1400 nm . The gray dotted lines mark the position of the filter cutoff wavelength. Inset, histogram in log–log scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histogram of the time series when performing spectral filtering above 1350, 1300, and 1250 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram of photodiode signal amplitude illustrating the blue edge fluctuations in the SC spectrum. The corresponding SC and the histogram in log–log scale are shown as insets. Spectral filtering at (left) 800 and (right) 900 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left, individual results from simulation ensemble (gray; for clarity only 50 individual shots are plotted) with calculated mean (solid). Right, energy histogram for filter cutoff wavelengths at 1350 and 800 nm . Insets, histograms in log–log scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated spectrogram for a (left) median and (right) rogue event.

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