Abstract

We propose a binary plasmonic method to design the binary plasmonic structure (BPS), which is used to launch surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) to a desired pattern. The BPS is composed of binary pixelated grooves. When a plane wave illuminates the BPS perpendicularly, the relative phases of the launched SPPs are determined by the positions of the grooves, which are designed by a simulated annealing algorithm. Here, we obtain single, three, and five SPP focal spots along the line parallel to the BPS, respectively, and three focal spots, which are located at the apexes of a triangle. The experiment agrees well with the numerical simulation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  9. S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, Opt. Express 13, 3150 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Wu, H. Luo, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, J. Wang, X. Wu, and J. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and L. M. Eng, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Giannattasio, I. R. Hooper, and W. L. Barnes, Opt. Commun. 261, 291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, Opt. Express 13, 3150 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. R. Krenn and J. C. Weeber, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 362, 739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. G. Song, B. M. Han, and S. Chang, Opt. Commun. 198, 7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, Jr., and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

A. Giannattasio, I. R. Hooper, and W. L. Barnes, Opt. Commun. 261, 291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

Y. G. Song, B. M. Han, and S. Chang, Opt. Commun. 198, 7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. -H.

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L. M.

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and L. M. Eng, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gelatt, C. D.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, Jr., and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannattasio, A.

A. Giannattasio, I. R. Hooper, and W. L. Barnes, Opt. Commun. 261, 291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

J. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Wu, H. Luo, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grafström, S.

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and L. M. Eng, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

Han, B. M.

Y. G. Song, B. M. Han, and S. Chang, Opt. Commun. 198, 7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, I. R.

A. Giannattasio, I. R. Hooper, and W. L. Barnes, Opt. Commun. 261, 291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, S.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, Jr., and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn and J. C. Weeber, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 362, 739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lévêque, G.

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, H.

J. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Wu, H. Luo, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, W.

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renger, J.

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and L. M. Eng, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

Song, Y. G.

Y. G. Song, B. M. Han, and S. Chang, Opt. Commun. 198, 7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vecchi, M. P.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, Jr., and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

C. Zhao, J. Wang, X. Wu, and J. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Wu, H. Luo, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

J. R. Krenn and J. C. Weeber, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 362, 739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

C. Zhao, J. Wang, X. Wu, and J. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Wu, H. Luo, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yatsui, T.

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

C. Zhao, J. Wang, X. Wu, and J. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Wu, H. Luo, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, J. Wang, X. Wu, and J. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Wu, H. Luo, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, J. Wang, X. Wu, and J. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Giannattasio, I. R. Hooper, and W. L. Barnes, Opt. Commun. 261, 291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Song, B. M. Han, and S. Chang, Opt. Commun. 198, 7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

J. R. Krenn and J. C. Weeber, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 362, 739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and L. M. Eng, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, Jr., and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Working geometry of the BPS. The wave lines show schematically the launched SPPs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of a BPS that can launch and focus SPPs into a spot. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the three-layer BPS [only a portion corresponding to the dashed border in (a) is shown]. (c) Theoretical and (d) experimental SPP images of the three-layer BPS around the focal area. The inset in (d) shows the experimental SPP image. (e) Experimental and theoretical longitudinal and transverse intensity profiles through the focal spot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematics of the three-layer BPSs that can launch (a) three and (b) five spots. Theoretical and experimental SPP images of the [(c),(d)] three and [(e),(f)] five spots, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the BPS with two different working distances. (b) Theoretical and (c) experimental SPP images around the focal area. The dashed lines in (b) indicate the two sampling lines.

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