Abstract

Upper-level wind fields are obtained by tracking the motion of cloud features as seen in calibrated ground-based stereo cameras. By tracking many cloud features, it is possible to obtain horizontal wind speed and direction over a cone area throughout the troposphere. Preliminary measurements were made at the Mauna Loa Observatory, and resulting wind measurements are compared with winds from the Hilo, Hawaii radiosondes.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Lane, R. Sharman, R. Frehlich, and J. Brown, J. Appl. Meteorol. 45, 1313 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Porter, D. Stevens, K. Roe, S. Kono, D. Kress, and E. Lau, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 123, 463 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Hollingshead, S. Businger, R. Draxler, J. N. Porter, and D. Stevens, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 108, 121 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Gilbert, A. Stohrer, and T. Sweeney, University of Michigan, Meteorology and Oceanography Dept., Final Report Project 08054 (1968).
  7. J. Pietschner, Photogramm. Rec. 7, 223 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. DePaul and C. Shein, Atmos. Environ. 20, 45 (1986).
  9. J. Porter, S. Sharma, B. Lienert, E. Lau, and K. Horton, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 1375 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision (Addison-Wesley, 1992), Vol 2, pp. 316-317.

2007 (1)

J. Porter, D. Stevens, K. Roe, S. Kono, D. Kress, and E. Lau, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 123, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Lane, R. Sharman, R. Frehlich, and J. Brown, J. Appl. Meteorol. 45, 1313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Porter, S. Sharma, B. Lienert, E. Lau, and K. Horton, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 1375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Hollingshead, S. Businger, R. Draxler, J. N. Porter, and D. Stevens, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 108, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

F. DePaul and C. Shein, Atmos. Environ. 20, 45 (1986).

1971 (1)

J. Pietschner, Photogramm. Rec. 7, 223 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J.

T. Lane, R. Sharman, R. Frehlich, and J. Brown, J. Appl. Meteorol. 45, 1313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Businger, S.

A. Hollingshead, S. Businger, R. Draxler, J. N. Porter, and D. Stevens, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 108, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carr, F.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dabberdt, W.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DePaul, F.

F. DePaul and C. Shein, Atmos. Environ. 20, 45 (1986).

Draxler, R.

A. Hollingshead, S. Businger, R. Draxler, J. N. Porter, and D. Stevens, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 108, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elias, T.

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frehlich, R.

T. Lane, R. Sharman, R. Frehlich, and J. Brown, J. Appl. Meteorol. 45, 1313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friday, E.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, G.

G. Gilbert, A. Stohrer, and T. Sweeney, University of Michigan, Meteorology and Oceanography Dept., Final Report Project 08054 (1968).

Haralick, R.

R. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision (Addison-Wesley, 1992), Vol 2, pp. 316-317.

Hollingshead, A.

A. Hollingshead, S. Businger, R. Draxler, J. N. Porter, and D. Stevens, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 108, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horton, K.

J. Porter, S. Sharma, B. Lienert, E. Lau, and K. Horton, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 1375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, D.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kono, S.

J. Porter, D. Stevens, K. Roe, S. Kono, D. Kress, and E. Lau, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 123, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kress, D.

J. Porter, D. Stevens, K. Roe, S. Kono, D. Kress, and E. Lau, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 123, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lane, T.

T. Lane, R. Sharman, R. Frehlich, and J. Brown, J. Appl. Meteorol. 45, 1313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lau, E.

J. Porter, D. Stevens, K. Roe, S. Kono, D. Kress, and E. Lau, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 123, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, S. Sharma, B. Lienert, E. Lau, and K. Horton, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 1375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lienert, B.

J. Porter, S. Sharma, B. Lienert, E. Lau, and K. Horton, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 1375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mouginis-Mark, P.

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheimer, C.

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pietschner, J.

J. Pietschner, Photogramm. Rec. 7, 223 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Pirone, M.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Porter, J.

J. Porter, D. Stevens, K. Roe, S. Kono, D. Kress, and E. Lau, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 123, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, S. Sharma, B. Lienert, E. Lau, and K. Horton, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 1375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Porter, J. N.

A. Hollingshead, S. Businger, R. Draxler, J. N. Porter, and D. Stevens, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 108, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, F.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roe, K.

J. Porter, D. Stevens, K. Roe, S. Kono, D. Kress, and E. Lau, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 123, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schlatter, T.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, L. G.

R. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision (Addison-Wesley, 1992), Vol 2, pp. 316-317.

Sharma, S.

J. Porter, S. Sharma, B. Lienert, E. Lau, and K. Horton, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 1375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. K.

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharman, R.

T. Lane, R. Sharman, R. Frehlich, and J. Brown, J. Appl. Meteorol. 45, 1313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shein, C.

F. DePaul and C. Shein, Atmos. Environ. 20, 45 (1986).

Stevens, D.

J. Porter, D. Stevens, K. Roe, S. Kono, D. Kress, and E. Lau, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 123, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hollingshead, S. Businger, R. Draxler, J. N. Porter, and D. Stevens, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 108, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stohrer, A.

G. Gilbert, A. Stohrer, and T. Sweeney, University of Michigan, Meteorology and Oceanography Dept., Final Report Project 08054 (1968).

Sun, J.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, J.

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, T.

G. Gilbert, A. Stohrer, and T. Sweeney, University of Michigan, Meteorology and Oceanography Dept., Final Report Project 08054 (1968).

Welsh, P.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

F. DePaul and C. Shein, Atmos. Environ. 20, 45 (1986).

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (2)

J. Porter, D. Stevens, K. Roe, S. Kono, D. Kress, and E. Lau, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 123, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hollingshead, S. Businger, R. Draxler, J. N. Porter, and D. Stevens, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 108, 121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

W. Dabberdt, T. Schlatter, F. Carr, E. Friday, D. Jorgensen, S. Koch, M. Pirone, F. Ralph, J. Sun, P. Welsh, J. Wilson, and X. Zou, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J. Porter, K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S. K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1783 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

T. Lane, R. Sharman, R. Frehlich, and J. Brown, J. Appl. Meteorol. 45, 1313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

J. Porter, S. Sharma, B. Lienert, E. Lau, and K. Horton, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 1375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Rec. (1)

J. Pietschner, Photogramm. Rec. 7, 223 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision (Addison-Wesley, 1992), Vol 2, pp. 316-317.

G. Gilbert, A. Stohrer, and T. Sweeney, University of Michigan, Meteorology and Oceanography Dept., Final Report Project 08054 (1968).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of an S-CIV system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of sky showing shadowband and wind speed and direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wind speeds versus height derived from the ground-based S-CIV system at the MLO at March 29, 2008, 9:15, 9:56, and 10:43 a.m. (symbols). Wind speeds obtained from the Hilo balloon radiosondes ( 40   miles away) release at 2 a.m. and 2 p.m. on the same day (solid curve). The height of the MLO is shown as a line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Percent error in wind speed measurement as a function of cloud height and zenith angle. For these calculations an error of ± 0.1 deg was introduced into the images with a wind speed of 10 m s and a 10 s image delay.

Metrics