Abstract

We demonstrate a damascene process for fabricating amorphous silicon (a-Si), single-mode optical channel waveguides and high-Q racetrack resonators. This process is compatible with thermal budget limitations for a-Si phase stability. It offers improved optical transmission and facilitates hydrogen encapsulation for process integration of a-Si waveguide cores. At 1550 nm, the average measured transmission loss coefficient is 2.5+/-0.1 dB/cm for the TE mode, comparable with high-quality single crystalline silicon counterparts. The racetrack resonators have mid-104 to 105 quality factors (Q) and extinction ratios as high as 25 dB.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).
  2. J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
  6. A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).

Agarwal, A.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Andricacos, P. C.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).

Beals, M.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Bernardis, S.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Cheng, J.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Deligianni, H.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).

Dukovic, J. O.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).

Gill, D. M.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Grove, M.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Hong, C.

Horkans, J.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).

Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Liu, J. F.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McComber, K.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Patel, S. S.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Pomerene, A.

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Rasras, M. S.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Sparacin, D. K.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Sun, R.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Uzoh, C.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).

White, A. E.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).

Nature Photonics (1)

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.

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