Abstract

We demonstrate a damascene process for fabricating amorphous silicon (a-Si), single-mode optical channel waveguides and high-Q racetrack resonators. This process is compatible with thermal budget limitations for a-Si phase stability. It offers improved optical transmission and facilitates hydrogen encapsulation for process integration of a-Si waveguide cores. At 1550nm, the average measured transmission loss coefficient is 2.5±0.1dBcm for the TE mode, comparable with high-quality single crystalline silicon counterparts. The racetrack resonators have mid-104 to 105 quality factors (Q) and extinction ratios as high as 25dB.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Andricacos, P. C.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Deligianni, H.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dukovic, J. O.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Grove, M.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

Horkans, J.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. F.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McComber, K.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Patel, S. S.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Rasras, M. S.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Express 16, 11682 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Uzoh, C.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev.

P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. O. Dukovic, J. Horkans, and H. Deligianni, IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nature Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, A. E. White, and L. C. Kimerling, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 255-257.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Angled cross-sectional SEM images of (a) as-etched oxide trenches before photoresist (PR) is removed; (b) overview of a racetrack resonator after CMP; (c) an a-Si channel waveguide formed in the oxide trench after CMP; (d) coupling region of the racetrack resonator after CMP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resonance spectra of four different devices with well-defined free spectral ranges (FSRs). The high- frequency resonances on the baselines are the Fabry–Perot fringes that are owing to the two mirrorlike bus waveguide facets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Critical-coupled resonance and its Lorentzian fit around 1534 nm . The measured Q is 10 5 ; the extinction ratio is 24.6 dB ; the resonator is w = 600 nm , L = 100 μ m , and g = 650 nm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Resonance Characteristics and the Measured TE Mode Transmission Loss Coefficients a

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