Abstract

We experimentally studied the transmission response of a one-dimensional rectangle-prism-shaped metamaterial slab for oblique incidence angles. The electrical size of the split-ring resonators was 1 order of magnitude smaller than the operation wavelength 8.5cm. We demonstrated that the left-handed transmission peak preserved up to an angle of incidence 45°. The angular measurements were performed with respect to two lateral directions. The confirmed insensitivity of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials to the angle of incidence makes them a good candidate for superlens applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, Photon. Nanostruct. 6, 102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, J. Phys. D 41, 135011 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. D. F. Casse, M. O. Moser, J. W. Lee, M. Bahou, S. Inglis, and L. K. Jian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 254106(1) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(1) (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 32, 53 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104(1) (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(1) (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402(1) (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, Photon. Nanostruct. 6, 102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, J. Phys. D 41, 135011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. D. F. Casse, M. O. Moser, J. W. Lee, M. Bahou, S. Inglis, and L. K. Jian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 254106(1) (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 32, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(1) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402(1) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104(1) (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alici, K. B.

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, J. Phys. D 41, 135011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, Photon. Nanostruct. 6, 102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bahou, M.

B. D. F. Casse, M. O. Moser, J. W. Lee, M. Bahou, S. Inglis, and L. K. Jian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 254106(1) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casse, B. D. F.

B. D. F. Casse, M. O. Moser, J. W. Lee, M. Bahou, S. Inglis, and L. K. Jian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 254106(1) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(1) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Economou, E. N.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402(1) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(1) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inglis, S.

B. D. F. Casse, M. O. Moser, J. W. Lee, M. Bahou, S. Inglis, and L. K. Jian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 254106(1) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jian, L. K.

B. D. F. Casse, M. O. Moser, J. W. Lee, M. Bahou, S. Inglis, and L. K. Jian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 254106(1) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402(1) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(1) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, Th.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402(1) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. W.

B. D. F. Casse, M. O. Moser, J. W. Lee, M. Bahou, S. Inglis, and L. K. Jian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 254106(1) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 32, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104(1) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M. O.

B. D. F. Casse, M. O. Moser, J. W. Lee, M. Bahou, S. Inglis, and L. K. Jian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 254106(1) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, J. Phys. D 41, 135011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, Photon. Nanostruct. 6, 102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(1) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104(1) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104(1) (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 32, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402(1) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104(1) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 32, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B. I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(1) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. D. F. Casse, M. O. Moser, J. W. Lee, M. Bahou, S. Inglis, and L. K. Jian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 254106(1) (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, J. Phys. D 41, 135011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Nanostruct. (1)

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, Photon. Nanostruct. 6, 102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Shultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104(1) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608(1) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402(1) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(1) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Unit cell parameters. (b) Schematic of the experiment setup when the metamaterial slab was rotated with respect to the y direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of the QEMT. Transmission response of the SRR medium and its shorted version (sh-SRR), and the CMM and its shorted version (sh-CMM) are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental transmission spectra as a function of frequency and angle of incidence θ for the three-layered composite metamaterial are shown. The angle θ corresponds to rotation with respect to the y axis. (b) Experimental transmission phase data for selected incidence angles 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and corresponding simulation for 0° incidence angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission spectra as a function of the frequency and angle of incidence α for the three-layered composite metamaterial are shown. The angle α corresponds to rotation with respect to the x axis. (b) Simulated transmission response of a semi-infinite continuous wire array and CCMM for the incidence angle of 45°.

Metrics