Abstract

We report what we believe to be a new method to fabricate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) fiber probe by direct femtosecond laser micromachining. Direct femtosecond laser ablations resulted in nanostructures on the cleaved endface of a multimode optical fiber with a 105/125μm core/cladding diameter. The laser-ablated fiber endface was SERS activated by silver chemical plating. High-quality SERS signal was detected using Rhodamine 6G molecules (108106  M solutions) via back excitation with the fiber length of up to 1 m. The fiber SERS probe was compared with a planar fused silica substrate at a front excitation. The long lead-in fiber length and the backexcitation/collection setup make the SERS probe promising for remote sensing applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

C. Gu and C. Shi, Laser Focus World 45, 97 (2009).

E. D. Diebold, N. H. Mack, S. K. Doorn, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 25, 1790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

Z. Zhou, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Wei, Y. Han, H. Tsai, and H. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 33, 536 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, D. Guo, Y. Shao, S. Jia, S. Xu, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, Langmuir 24, 4394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, Opt. Express 16, 8300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Shi, H. Yan, and C. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Lucotti and G. Zerbi, Sens. Actuators B 121, 356 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, F. Lederer, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. B 82, 507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Haynes, A. McFarland, and R. Duyne, Anal. Chem. 77, 338A (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Viets and W. Hill, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 6330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. Viets and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Vo-Dinh, Anal. Chem. 17, 557 (1998).

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, Anal. Chem. 63, 2196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Bello, J. M.

Bloemer, D.

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, F. Lederer, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. B 82, 507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, F. Lederer, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. B 82, 507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carron, K. T.

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, Anal. Chem. 63, 2196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Z. Zhou, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, C. M.

Davis, K. M.

Diebold, E. D.

E. D. Diebold, N. H. Mack, S. K. Doorn, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 25, 1790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doorn, S. K.

E. D. Diebold, N. H. Mack, S. K. Doorn, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 25, 1790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duyne, R.

C. Haynes, A. McFarland, and R. Duyne, Anal. Chem. 77, 338A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. N.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

C. Gu and C. Shi, Laser Focus World 45, 97 (2009).

H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, Opt. Express 16, 8300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Shi, H. Yan, and C. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, D.

X. Zheng, D. Guo, Y. Shao, S. Jia, S. Xu, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, Langmuir 24, 4394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

Haynes, C.

C. Haynes, A. McFarland, and R. Duyne, Anal. Chem. 77, 338A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hill, W.

C. Viets and W. Hill, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 6330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Viets and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hou, L.

Jia, S.

X. Zheng, D. Guo, Y. Shao, S. Jia, S. Xu, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, Langmuir 24, 4394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, G.

Keir, R. L.

Lederer, F.

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, F. Lederer, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. B 82, 507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Lucotti, A.

A. Lucotti and G. Zerbi, Sens. Actuators B 121, 356 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mack, N. H.

E. D. Diebold, N. H. Mack, S. K. Doorn, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 25, 1790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

E. D. Diebold, N. H. Mack, S. K. Doorn, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 25, 1790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFarland, A.

C. Haynes, A. McFarland, and R. Duyne, Anal. Chem. 77, 338A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Menon, S.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Mullen, K. I.

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, Anal. Chem. 63, 2196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nibarger, J. P.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, F. Lederer, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. B 82, 507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, F. Lederer, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. B 82, 507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polwart, E.

Sadler, D. A.

Shao, Y.

X. Zheng, D. Guo, Y. Shao, S. Jia, S. Xu, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, Langmuir 24, 4394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, C.

C. Gu and C. Shi, Laser Focus World 45, 97 (2009).

C. Shi, H. Yan, and C. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. E.

Stokes, D. L.

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Szameit, A.

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, F. Lederer, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. B 82, 507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H.

Tuennermann, A.

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, F. Lederer, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. B 82, 507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viets, C.

C. Viets and W. Hill, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 6330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Viets and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vo-Dinh, T.

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Vo-Dinh, Anal. Chem. 17, 557 (1998).

J. M. Bello and T. Vo-Dinh, Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 63 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

Xiao, H.

Xu, J.

Z. Zhou, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

X. Zheng, D. Guo, Y. Shao, S. Jia, S. Xu, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, Langmuir 24, 4394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

X. Zheng, D. Guo, Y. Shao, S. Jia, S. Xu, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, Langmuir 24, 4394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Z. Zhou, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

Yang, C.

Zerbi, G.

A. Lucotti and G. Zerbi, Sens. Actuators B 121, 356 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

X. Zheng, D. Guo, Y. Shao, S. Jia, S. Xu, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, Langmuir 24, 4394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, D. Guo, Y. Shao, S. Jia, S. Xu, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, Langmuir 24, 4394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z.

Z. Zhou, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (3)

C. Haynes, A. McFarland, and R. Duyne, Anal. Chem. 77, 338A (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Vo-Dinh, Anal. Chem. 17, 557 (1998).

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, Anal. Chem. 63, 2196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, F. Lederer, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. B 82, 507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Shi, H. Yan, and C. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. Viets and W. Hill, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 6330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Zhou, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

E. D. Diebold, N. H. Mack, S. K. Doorn, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 25, 1790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, D. Guo, Y. Shao, S. Jia, S. Xu, B. Zhao, and W. Xu, Langmuir 24, 4394 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Focus World (1)

C. Gu and C. Shi, Laser Focus World 45, 97 (2009).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

C. Viets and W. Hill, Sens. Actuators B 51, 92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucotti and G. Zerbi, Sens. Actuators B 121, 356 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of femtosecond laser-ablated fiber endface, (a) fiber tip (1500×), (b) surface profile (15 ,000×, 60° tilted), (c) silver nanoparticles coated on structured surface (70 ,000×).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectra of R6G with a 1.7 mW HeNe laser excitation power and 1 s integration time. (a) Freshly cleaved fiber (1 m long); (b) femtosecond laser-ablated silver-coated (10 min) fiber SERS probe (1 m long) in a 10 6   M solution; (c) femtosecond laser-ablated silver-coated (10 min) planar fused silica SERS substrate in a 10 6   M solution with front excitation (shifted); and (d) silver-coated (10 min) unroughened fiber (1 m long) in a 10 3   M solution (multiplied by 10).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra of R6G solutions with various concentrations obtained by the fiber SERS probe (1 m long). (a) 10 6 , (b) 10 7 (multiplied by 5 for easy viewing), (c) 10 8   M (multiplied by 10 for easy viewing). Inset, SERS intensity versus R6G concentration at 1511 cm 1 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Back-excited Raman intensity as a function of lead-in fiber length at 1312 cm 1 . Inset: SERS spectra at 1312 cm 1 , solid curve: 0.5 m long lead-in fiber; dashed curve: 1 m long lead-in fiber.

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