Abstract

Variation of germanium lone pair center (GLPC) concentration in germanosilicate multistep-index optical fibers and preforms was studied using confocal microscopy luminescence technique. The experimental results provide evidence that in the central core region ([Ge]11wt.%) of our specific canonical samples the ratio [GLPC]/[Ge] is five times larger in fiber than in preforms. The relative influence of the glass composition and of the drawing process on the generation efficiency of the GLPC defects that drive the glass photosensitivity is discussed. The radial distribution of these defects suggests a possible enhancement of the defect creation related to the internal stress of the fiber core.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (2)

G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, S. Girard, N. Richard, M. Cannas, R. Boscaino, and Y. Ouerdane, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 266, 2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Belhadj, Y. Park, S. LaRochelle, K. Dossou, and J. Azaña, Opt. Express 16, 8727 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Cannas and G. Origlio, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and J.-P. Meunier, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. H. Lee and S. K. Oh, Proc. SPIE 5279, 483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

1995 (1)

1992 (3)

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, and K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 1445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149, 77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Atkins, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, Electron. Lett. 28, 768 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

H. Hanafusa, Y. Hibino, and F. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, and K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 1445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agnello, S.

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, A. Cannizzo, F. M. Gelardi, S. Grandi, and M. Leone, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, G. R.

G. R. Atkins, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, Electron. Lett. 28, 768 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Azaña, J.

Baggio, J.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

Belhadj, N.

Berghmans, F.

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

Bisutti, J.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

Boscaino, R.

G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, S. Girard, N. Richard, M. Cannas, R. Boscaino, and Y. Ouerdane, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 266, 2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, A. Cannizzo, F. M. Gelardi, S. Grandi, and M. Leone, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

Boukenter, A.

G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, S. Girard, N. Richard, M. Cannas, R. Boscaino, and Y. Ouerdane, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 266, 2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and J.-P. Meunier, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

Cannas, M.

G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, S. Girard, N. Richard, M. Cannas, R. Boscaino, and Y. Ouerdane, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 266, 2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Cannas and G. Origlio, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, A. Cannizzo, F. M. Gelardi, S. Grandi, and M. Leone, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

Cannizzo, A.

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, A. Cannizzo, F. M. Gelardi, S. Grandi, and M. Leone, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

Cochet, F.

Dossou, K.

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gelardi, F. M.

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, A. Cannizzo, F. M. Gelardi, S. Grandi, and M. Leone, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, S. Girard, N. Richard, M. Cannas, R. Boscaino, and Y. Ouerdane, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 266, 2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and J.-P. Meunier, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

Grandi, S.

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, A. Cannizzo, F. M. Gelardi, S. Grandi, and M. Leone, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, D. L.

G. Pacchioni, L. Skuja, and D. L. Griscom, Defects in SiO2 and Related Dielectrics: Science and Technology (Kluwer, 2000).
[PubMed]

Gusarov, A.

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

Hanafusa, H.

H. Hanafusa, Y. Hibino, and F. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

H. Hanafusa, Y. Hibino, and F. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, and K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 1445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ichii, K.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, K.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, and K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 1445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kinser, D.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, and K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 1445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

LaRochelle, S.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee and S. K. Oh, Proc. SPIE 5279, 483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leone, M.

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, A. Cannizzo, F. M. Gelardi, S. Grandi, and M. Leone, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leuenberger, B.

Limberger, H. G.

Marcandella, C.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J. P.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J.-P.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and J.-P. Meunier, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, I.

Nishii, J.

Nishiyama, H.

Oh, S. K.

J. H. Lee and S. K. Oh, Proc. SPIE 5279, 483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Origlio, G.

G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, S. Girard, N. Richard, M. Cannas, R. Boscaino, and Y. Ouerdane, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 266, 2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Cannas and G. Origlio, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

Ouerdane, Y.

G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, S. Girard, N. Richard, M. Cannas, R. Boscaino, and Y. Ouerdane, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 266, 2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and J.-P. Meunier, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

Pacchioni, G.

G. Pacchioni, L. Skuja, and D. L. Griscom, Defects in SiO2 and Related Dielectrics: Science and Technology (Kluwer, 2000).
[PubMed]

Paillet, P.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Poole, S. B.

G. R. Atkins, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, Electron. Lett. 28, 768 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Régnier, E.

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

Richard, N.

G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, S. Girard, N. Richard, M. Cannas, R. Boscaino, and Y. Ouerdane, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 266, 2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

Sakoh, A.

Salathé, R. P.

Sceats, M. G.

G. R. Atkins, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, Electron. Lett. 28, 768 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, H. W.

G. R. Atkins, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, Electron. Lett. 28, 768 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149, 77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Pacchioni, L. Skuja, and D. L. Griscom, Defects in SiO2 and Related Dielectrics: Science and Technology (Kluwer, 2000).
[PubMed]

Takahashi, M.

Takahashi, T.

Thienpont, H.

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, Y.

Tortech, B.

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

Van Uffelen, M.

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

Weeks, R.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, and K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 1445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whitbread, T.

Yamamoto, F.

H. Hanafusa, Y. Hibino, and F. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. R. Atkins, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, Electron. Lett. 28, 768 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and J.-P. Meunier, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hanafusa, Y. Hibino, and F. Yamamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. Skuja, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149, 77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

G. Origlio, A. Boukenter, S. Girard, N. Richard, M. Cannas, R. Boscaino, and Y. Ouerdane, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 266, 2918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, A. Cannizzo, F. M. Gelardi, S. Grandi, and M. Leone, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, and K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 1445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Cannas and G. Origlio, Phys. Rev. B 75, 233201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. H. Lee and S. K. Oh, Proc. SPIE 5279, 483 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J. P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 3473.
[CrossRef]

B. Tortech, S. Girard, E. Régnier, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 55, p. 2223.
[CrossRef]

G. Pacchioni, L. Skuja, and D. L. Griscom, Defects in SiO2 and Related Dielectrics: Science and Technology (Kluwer, 2000).
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

3D plot of the CML band related to the T 1 S 0 GLPC transition, measured at different distances from the fiber core center and obtained under excitation at 3.8 eV in the fiber sample. The PL intensity decreases with the distance from the center, i.e., with the Ge O 2 content.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) GLPC concentration (empty squares) and refractive index change Δ n (solid curve) with respect to silica obtained by a transversal mapping of the fiber sample at various distances from the core center. (b) Microscopic view of the fiber cross section. The different layers are distinguishable. The x scales in the upper and lower figures coincide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

GLPC concentration trend detected in the different sample layers as a function of Ge content both in fiber (empty squares) and preform (full circles) and as a function of distance from fiber center (top x scale). The preform/fiber diameter ratio is 80.4.

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