Abstract

We present direct measurements of the spatiotemporal electric field of an ultrashort Bessel-X pulse generated using a conical lens (axicon). These measurements were made using the linear-optical interferometric technique SEA TADPOLE, which has micrometer spatial resolution and femtosecond temporal resolution. From our measurements, both the superluminal velocity of the Bessel pulse and the propagation invariance of the central spot are apparent. We verified our measurements with simulations.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Alexeev, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Gaizauskas, A. Dubietis, V. Kudriasov, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 457-479.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Saari and K. Reivelt, Phys. Rev. E 69, 036612 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Mugnai and I. Mochi, in Localized Waves, H. E.Hernández-Figueroa, M.Zamboni-Rached, and E.Recami, eds. (Wiley Interscience, 2008), pp. 159-181.

2009

2008

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, M. A. Coughlan, R. Trebino, and R. J. Levis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, J. Biophoton. 1, 183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, B. Pasquiou, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 281, 4240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. Saari and K. Reivelt, Phys. Rev. E 69, 036612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

I. Alexeev, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Akturk, S.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, B. Pasquiou, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 281, 4240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, I.

I. Alexeev, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

Bock, M.

Bonaretti, F.

Bowlan, P.

Brown, C. T. A.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, J. Biophoton. 1, 183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clerici, M.

Conti, C.

C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, and S. Trillo, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 439-456.
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

E. Gaizauskas, A. Dubietis, V. Kudriasov, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 457-479.
[CrossRef]

Coughlan, M. A.

Das, S. K.

Dholakia, K.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, J. Biophoton. 1, 183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Di Trapani, P.

F. Bonaretti, D. Faccio, M. Clerici, J. Biegert, and P. Di Trapani, Opt. Express 17, 9804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gaizauskas, A. Dubietis, V. Kudriasov, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 457-479.
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, and S. Trillo, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 439-456.
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

E. Gaizauskas, A. Dubietis, V. Kudriasov, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 457-479.
[CrossRef]

Faccio, D.

F. Bonaretti, D. Faccio, M. Clerici, J. Biegert, and P. Di Trapani, Opt. Express 17, 9804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gaizauskas, A. Dubietis, V. Kudriasov, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 457-479.
[CrossRef]

Fortin, M.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, B. Pasquiou, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 281, 4240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gabolde, P.

Gaizauskas, E.

E. Gaizauskas, A. Dubietis, V. Kudriasov, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 457-479.
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grunwald, R.

M. Bock, S. K. Das, and R. Grunwald, Opt. Express 17, 7465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gunn-Moore, F. J.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, J. Biophoton. 1, 183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kebbel, V.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

I. Alexeev, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudriasov, V.

E. Gaizauskas, A. Dubietis, V. Kudriasov, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 457-479.
[CrossRef]

Kummrow, A.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, J. Biophoton. 1, 183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levis, R. J.

McDougall, C.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, J. Biophoton. 1, 183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGloin, D.

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M.

I. Alexeev, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mochi, I.

D. Mugnai and I. Mochi, in Localized Waves, H. E.Hernández-Figueroa, M.Zamboni-Rached, and E.Recami, eds. (Wiley Interscience, 2008), pp. 159-181.

Mugnai, D.

D. Mugnai and I. Mochi, in Localized Waves, H. E.Hernández-Figueroa, M.Zamboni-Rached, and E.Recami, eds. (Wiley Interscience, 2008), pp. 159-181.

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, B. Pasquiou, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 281, 4240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, U.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pasquiou, B.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, B. Pasquiou, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 281, 4240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piché, M.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rätsep, M.

Reivelt, K.

P. Saari and K. Reivelt, Phys. Rev. E 69, 036612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Saari and K. Reivelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rini, M.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, G.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saari, P.

P. Saari and K. Reivelt, Phys. Rev. E 69, 036612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Saari and K. Reivelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Sõnajalg, M. Rätsep, and P. Saari, Opt. Lett. 22, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, J. Biophoton. 1, 183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sirutkaitis, V.

E. Gaizauskas, A. Dubietis, V. Kudriasov, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 457-479.
[CrossRef]

Sõnajalg, H.

Stevenson, D. J.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, J. Biophoton. 1, 183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Trillo, S.

C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, and S. Trillo, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 439-456.
[CrossRef]

Tsampoula, X.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, J. Biophoton. 1, 183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, B. Pasquiou, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 281, 4240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys.

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biophoton.

C. T. A. Brown, D. J. Stevenson, X. Tsampoula, C. McDougall, A. A. Lagatsky, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, J. Biophoton. 1, 183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, B. Pasquiou, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 281, 4240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

P. Saari and K. Reivelt, Phys. Rev. E 69, 036612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Saari and K. Reivelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Alexeev, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. Conti, P. Di Trapani, and S. Trillo, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 439-456.
[CrossRef]

E. Gaizauskas, A. Dubietis, V. Kudriasov, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Couairon, D. Faccio, and P. Di Trapani, in Self-Focusing: Past and Present (Springer, 2009), pp. 457-479.
[CrossRef]

H.E.Hernández-Figueroa, M.Zamboni-Rached, and E.Recami, eds., Localized Waves (Wiley-Interscience, 2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Mugnai and I. Mochi, in Localized Waves, H. E.Hernández-Figueroa, M.Zamboni-Rached, and E.Recami, eds. (Wiley Interscience, 2008), pp. 159-181.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. A single-mode optical fiber samples a small region of a Bessel pulse, generated using an axicon. The reference pulse is coupled into an identical fiber. At the other end of the fibers, one lens is used to collimate both beams, and this also causes them to cross. A CCD camera is placed at their crossing point to record the resulting interference. Wavelength is mapped to the camera’s horizontal dimension, so that a two-dimensional spectral interferogram is recorded, and E ( λ ) is retrieved from this image [14]. To measure the spatiotemporal field, we scan the Bessel pulse’s sampling fiber in x and the axicon in z, so that an interferogram at each fiber position is measured, and from this, the field E ( λ , x , z ) is measured.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left, the measured field amplitude at three different distances ( z ) after the axicon; right, the corresponding simulations. Intensity is indicated by the scale. We normalized each field to have a maximum of 1. The white bar is to emphasize the location of t = 0 .

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