Abstract

Linear optical sampling characterizes a sample by measuring the distortions on a transmitted optical field, thereby quantifying the sample’s optical response. By exploiting the high mutual coherence between two phase-locked femtosecond fiber lasers, we achieve very high signal-to-noise ratio measurements of transmitted optical electric fields through coherent averaging. We measure the optical electric fields with 15.16 bits of dynamic range (91 dB in intensity) and with 525 fs timing resolution over a 10 ns time window, in a 5.1 s averaging period.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Giaccari, J.-D. Deschenes, P. Saucier, J. Genest, and P. Tremblay, Opt. Express 16, 4347 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Williams, T. Dennis, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Schiller, Opt. Lett. 27, 766 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, and C. Dorrer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

Araki, T.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowie, J.

Brehm, M.

Cerna, R.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheriaux, G.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Williams, T. Dennis, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coq, Y. L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLong, K.

Dennis, T.

P. A. Williams, T. Dennis, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deschenes, J. -D.

Diddams, S. A.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, and C. Dorrer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feder, K. S.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

Fittinghoff, D.

Genest, J.

Giaccari, P.

Gohle, C.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Hudert, F.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janke, C.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jennings, R.

Joffre, M.

Kabetani, Y.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

Keilmann, F.

Kilper, D. C.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kistner, C.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumbugel, M.

Langrock, C.

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lepetit, L.

Lorini, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McFerran, J. J.

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Williams, T. Dennis, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholson, J. W.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oates, C. W.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quraishi, Q.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saneyoshi, E.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saucier, P.

Schiller, S.

Schliesser, A.

Stuart, H. R.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Williams, T. Dennis, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweetser, J.

Thoma, A.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

Tremblay, P.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Weide, D.

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I.

Waxer, L.

I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, and C. Dorrer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 31, 3046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. A.

P. A. Williams, T. Dennis, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasui, T.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, S.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Williams, T. Dennis, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nat. Photonics (2)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, and C. Dorrer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top, schematic of the setup. The signal and the LO are two fiber frequency combs, phase locked together such that the LO pulse advances past the signal pulse by Δ T every pulse. The solid curves are fiber optics, the dashed curves are electrical paths, and the filled ovals are fiber couplers. The bandpass filter is 2   nm wide. For the demonstration here, we used a 1.14 km spool of optical fiber as the test sample. Furthermore, we take advantage of the 10 ns time window by interleaving the “reference” and the “test” signals with a 3 ns time offset rather than detecting them separately. Balanced detection is used to achieve close to shot-noise-limited heterodyne detection. Bottom, schematic of coherent LOS assuming zero carrier-envelope offset phase for the LO pulse train.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Complete 10 ns, single frame of sampled data at 525 fs spacing. The first peak is from the reference path and the second from the test path. (b) Expanded view of the signal returns for a single frame (upper blue trace) and for an average of 26,900 frames (lower red trace) over 5.1 s after phase correction. The peak retains 95% of its height even after averaging, owing to the high mutual coherence. The test signal return is stretched because of the fiber dispersion. Carrier frequencies seen here are effectively mixed down by ν 0 through the sampling process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Time domain optical response from deconvolving the averaged data in Fig. 2, after removing the overall phase shift and delay. The peak statistical SNR for the time domain data is 5000. A 50 ps window is shown, but the full available time window is 3 ns, set by the spacing between the reference and test peaks. (b) Frequency domain optical response over 0.5 THz in magnitude (dotted red curve), after removing the relative power splitting of the coupler, and phase (solid blue curve). The 3 ns time window gives a 330 MHz resolution. Also shown is the magnitude spectrum of the of the 2 nm filtered signal (dashed black curve). As in Fig. 2 the carrier and offset frequencies are offset by ν 0 .

Equations (1)

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V ( τ ) = e i Δ φ S ( τ ) A S ( τ ) k δ ( τ k T S ) + σ ,

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