Abstract

The effects of using radially polarized illumination in a confocal microscope are discussed, and the introduction of a polarization mode converter into the detection optics of the microscope is proposed. We find that with such a configuration, bright-field imaging can be performed without losing the resolution advantage of radially polarized illumination. The detection efficiency can be increased by three times without having to increase the pinhole radius and sacrificing the confocality of the system. Furthermore, the merits of such a setup are also discussed in relation to surface plasmon microscopy and single-molecule orientation studies, where the doughnut point spread function can be engineered into a single-lobed point spread function.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

2007

2006

D. P. Biss, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Appl. Opt. 45, 470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Fourkas, Opt. Lett. 26, 211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, J. Microsc. 193, 127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1992

Beversluis, M. R.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biss, D. P.

Borejdo, J.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, T. G.

D. P. Biss, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Appl. Opt. 45, 470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calander, N.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, C. T.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. J. R. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, A.

Chung, E.

Davis, L. M.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foreman, M. R.

Fourkas, J. T.

Gryczynski, I.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, Z.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Hecht, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higdon, P. D.

P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, J. Microsc. 193, 127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. -H.

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. J. R. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muthu, P.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero, C. M.

Schadt, M.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. J. R. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Tang, E. Chung, Y.-H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Express 15, 4634 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Commun. 275, 453 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Appl. Opt. 43, 4322 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 168, 209 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. J. R. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sick, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikorski, Z.

So, P. T. C.

Stalder, M.

Tang, W. T.

Török, P.

M. R. Foreman, C. M. Romero, and P. Török, Opt. Lett. 33, 1020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, J. Microsc. 193, 127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. J. R. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, J. Microsc. 193, 127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yew, E. Y. S.

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Commun. 275, 453 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Youngworth, K. S.

D. P. Biss, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Appl. Opt. 45, 470 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc.

P. D. Higdon, P. Török, and T. Wilson, J. Microsc. 193, 127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 168, 209 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

P. Török, P. D. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Photonics

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. J. R. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, Nat. Photonics 2, 501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Commun. 275, 453 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Confocal microscope setup (green/light gray, reflection type; blue/gray, transmission type) with a polarization mode converter added in the path of the detection optics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Detection efficiency and (b) axial resolution normalized to wavelength as a function of normalized pinhole radius. Solid curve, with polarization mode converter; dashed curve, without converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optimal pinhole size corresponding to maximum SNR as a function of the noise level in the microscope, (b) enhancement factor versus detection NA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental images: top panels, without polarization mode converter; bottom panels, with converter. (a),(b) Without analyzer; (c)–(h) with analyzer at 0°, 45°, and 90°. The size of image is 3 μ m in both axes.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 1 = 2 π l z 2 | A | 2 0 v p ( | G 0 | 2 + 2 | G 1 | 2 + | G 2 | 2 ) v d v ,
G 0 = 0 α a ( θ ) sin 2 θ ( 1 + cos   θ ) J 0 ( v   sin   θ sin   α ) d θ ,
G 1 = 0 α a ( θ ) sin 3 θ J 1 ( v   sin   θ sin   α ) d θ ,
G 2 = 0 α a ( θ ) sin 2 θ ( 1 cos   θ ) J 2 ( v   sin   θ sin   α ) d θ ,
P 2 = 8 π l z 2 | A | 2 0 v p ( | K 0 | 2 + | K 1 | 2 ) v d v ,
K 0 = 0 α a ( θ ) sin 3 θ J 0 ( v   sin   θ sin   α ) d θ ,
K 1 = 0 α a ( θ ) sin 2 θ   cos   θ J 1 ( v   sin   θ sin   α ) d θ .

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