Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an optical minimum-shift-keying (MSK) transmitter using a single-quad Mach–Zehnder (MZ) in-phase and quadrature modulator, where four sub-Mach–Zehnder modulators are monolithically integrated on a main MZ superstructure. Using the proposed transmitter, a MSK signal at bit rate of B could be successfully generated by orthogonally superposing two low-speed (B/2) carrier-suppressed return-to-zero differential phase-shift-keying streams with a relative time offset, 1/B. MSK signals at bit rate of 20 and 80 Gbits/s were successfully generated using the proposed MSK transmitter. A continuous changed phase trajectory of the obtained MSK was confirmed using a complex spectrum analyzer. The filtering tolerance of the MSK was also characterized using a bandwidth-variable tunable filter.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Mo, Y. Dong, Y. J. Wen, S. Takahashi, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th1.2.3.
  2. T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th2.2.5.
  3. Y. Dong, P. Hu, Y. Su, H. He, W. Hu, and J. Chang, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) Conference (2006), paper JTHB40.
  4. M. Rohde, R. Freund, C. Caspar, A. Hachmeister, and M. Gruner, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Mo.4.E.4.
  5. G.-W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, J. Ichikawa, K. Higuma, and T. Kawanishi, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Th.3.D.5.
  6. X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2003 (1)

X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
[Crossref]

Caspar, C.

M. Rohde, R. Freund, C. Caspar, A. Hachmeister, and M. Gruner, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Mo.4.E.4.

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.

Y. Dong, P. Hu, Y. Su, H. He, W. Hu, and J. Chang, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) Conference (2006), paper JTHB40.

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong, P. Hu, Y. Su, H. He, W. Hu, and J. Chang, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) Conference (2006), paper JTHB40.

J. Mo, Y. Dong, Y. J. Wen, S. Takahashi, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th1.2.3.

Freund, R.

M. Rohde, R. Freund, C. Caspar, A. Hachmeister, and M. Gruner, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Mo.4.E.4.

Gill, D. M.

X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gnauck, A. H.

X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gruner, M.

M. Rohde, R. Freund, C. Caspar, A. Hachmeister, and M. Gruner, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Mo.4.E.4.

Hachmeister, A.

M. Rohde, R. Freund, C. Caspar, A. Hachmeister, and M. Gruner, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Mo.4.E.4.

He, H.

Y. Dong, P. Hu, Y. Su, H. He, W. Hu, and J. Chang, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) Conference (2006), paper JTHB40.

Higuma, K.

G.-W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, J. Ichikawa, K. Higuma, and T. Kawanishi, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Th.3.D.5.

Hu, P.

Y. Dong, P. Hu, Y. Su, H. He, W. Hu, and J. Chang, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) Conference (2006), paper JTHB40.

Hu, W.

Y. Dong, P. Hu, Y. Su, H. He, W. Hu, and J. Chang, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) Conference (2006), paper JTHB40.

Ichikawa, J.

G.-W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, J. Ichikawa, K. Higuma, and T. Kawanishi, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Th.3.D.5.

Izutsu, M.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th2.2.5.

Kawanishi, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th2.2.5.

G.-W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, J. Ichikawa, K. Higuma, and T. Kawanishi, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Th.3.D.5.

Koc, U. -V.

X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

J. Mo, Y. Dong, Y. J. Wen, S. Takahashi, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th1.2.3.

Lu, G. -W.

G.-W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, J. Ichikawa, K. Higuma, and T. Kawanishi, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Th.3.D.5.

Miyazaki, T.

G.-W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, J. Ichikawa, K. Higuma, and T. Kawanishi, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Th.3.D.5.

Mo, J.

J. Mo, Y. Dong, Y. J. Wen, S. Takahashi, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th1.2.3.

Raybon, G.

X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rohde, M.

M. Rohde, R. Freund, C. Caspar, A. Hachmeister, and M. Gruner, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Mo.4.E.4.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th2.2.5.

Su, Y.

Y. Dong, P. Hu, Y. Su, H. He, W. Hu, and J. Chang, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) Conference (2006), paper JTHB40.

Takahashi, S.

J. Mo, Y. Dong, Y. J. Wen, S. Takahashi, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th1.2.3.

Wang, Y.

J. Mo, Y. Dong, Y. J. Wen, S. Takahashi, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th1.2.3.

Wei, X.

X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wen, Y. J.

J. Mo, Y. Dong, Y. J. Wen, S. Takahashi, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th1.2.3.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Wei, A. H. Gnauck, D. M. Gill, X. Liu, U.-V. Koc, S. Chandrasekhar, G. Raybon, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1639 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

J. Mo, Y. Dong, Y. J. Wen, S. Takahashi, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th1.2.3.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005), paper Th2.2.5.

Y. Dong, P. Hu, Y. Su, H. He, W. Hu, and J. Chang, Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) Conference (2006), paper JTHB40.

M. Rohde, R. Freund, C. Caspar, A. Hachmeister, and M. Gruner, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Mo.4.E.4.

G.-W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, J. Ichikawa, K. Higuma, and T. Kawanishi, European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2008), paper Th.3.D.5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(i) Operation principle of the proposed optical MSK transmitter. (ii) Illustration of intensity and phase (dotted line) pattern in the quad-MZ IQ modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for 20 Gbits/s MSK generation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(i) Measured optical spectrum of a 20 Gbits/s MSK, a 10 Gbits/s DPSK, and a 10 Gbits/s CSRZ-DPSK and (ii) measured optical phase trajectory using a complex spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(i) BER curves of a 20 Gbits/s MSK after demultiplexing and the (ii) detected eye diagrams of a 10 Gbits/s CSRZ-DPSK and a 20 Gbits/s MSK.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(i) Filtered optical spectra using a bandwidth-variable tunable filter with different bandwidths, (ii) and the power penalty of a filtered 20 Gbits/s MSK with different bandwidths. Inset: detected eye diagrams of a 20 Gbits/s MSK with filtering bandwidth of around 21 GHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(i) Measured optical spectrum of an 80 Gbits/s MSK, and (ii) the detected 80 Gbits/s eye diagrams after filtering (a) LSB and (b) USB.

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