Abstract

A novel (to our knowledge) concept for a tunable birefringent filter with a high dynamic range is proposed and demonstrated by using a stack of liquid-crystal retarders having different thicknesses following an arithmetic sequence. Each retarder is between crossed polarizers with its optic axis oriented azimuthally at 45° to the polarizer axis. The tunable filter was fabricated by using nematic liquid crystals demonstrating tunability over a range of 800nm, covering the visible and the near IR; hence it has a potential for use in biomedical optical imaging applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 3266 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. D. Sharp and K. M. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 12, 98 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, Nature Mater. 6, 929 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Gat, Proc. SPIE 4056, 50 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. J. Miller and C. C. Hoyt, Proc. SPIE 2345, 354 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Hannah, C. Hoyt, and T. Patrick, Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 857 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Hirabayshi and T. Kurokawa, Liq. Cryst. 14, 307 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. H. Morris, C. C. Hoyt, P. Miller, J. P. Treado, and J. Patrick, Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 697 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Dandin, P. Abshire, and E. Smela, Lab Chip 7, 955 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Wave in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).
  12. I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).
  13. J. S. Patel and S. D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2491 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. C. Lin and W. C. Chuang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 475 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, New J. Phys. 10, 1367 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. T. Wu, Appl. Opt. 28, 48 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. S. Seymour, M. S. Rees, J. Staromlynska, J. Richards, and P. Wilson, Opt. Eng. 33, 951 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. J. Masterson, G. D. Sharp, and K. M. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 14, 1249 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. D. Sharp, K. M. Johnson, and D. Doroski, Opt. Lett. 15, 523 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Sneh and K. M. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1067 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, J. Opt. A 8, 652 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Gal, E. Eidinger, Z. Zalevsky, D. Mendlovic, and E. Marom, Opt. Express 10, 1534 (2002).
  23. J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Li, G. Baird, Y. Hsin, L. H. Ren, and S. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. O. Aharon, A. Safrani, R. Moses, and I. Abdulhalim, Proc. SPIE 7050, 70500P (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, New J. Phys. 10, 1367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Aharon, A. Safrani, R. Moses, and I. Abdulhalim, Proc. SPIE 7050, 70500P (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, Nature Mater. 6, 929 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Dandin, P. Abshire, and E. Smela, Lab Chip 7, 955 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, J. Opt. A 8, 652 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. Hsin, L. H. Ren, and S. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. C. Lin and W. C. Chuang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Gal, E. Eidinger, Z. Zalevsky, D. Mendlovic, and E. Marom, Opt. Express 10, 1534 (2002).

2001

S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 3266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Gat, Proc. SPIE 4056, 50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. D. Sharp and K. M. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 12, 98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Sneh and K. M. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1067 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Morris, C. C. Hoyt, P. Miller, J. P. Treado, and J. Patrick, Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. J. Miller and C. C. Hoyt, Proc. SPIE 2345, 354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. S. Seymour, M. S. Rees, J. Staromlynska, J. Richards, and P. Wilson, Opt. Eng. 33, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Hannah, C. Hoyt, and T. Patrick, Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. Hirabayshi and T. Kurokawa, Liq. Cryst. 14, 307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. S. Patel and S. D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

Abdulhalim, I.

O. Aharon, A. Safrani, R. Moses, and I. Abdulhalim, Proc. SPIE 7050, 70500P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, P.

M. Dandin, P. Abshire, and E. Smela, Lab Chip 7, 955 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aharon, O.

O. Aharon, A. Safrani, R. Moses, and I. Abdulhalim, Proc. SPIE 7050, 70500P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bading, J. R.

A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baird, G.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. Hsin, L. H. Ren, and S. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 3266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brettel, H.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari1, A. J.

A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cherry, S. R.

A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, W. C.

K. C. Lin and W. C. Chuang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conti, P. S.

A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, Nature Mater. 6, 929 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dandin, M.

M. Dandin, P. Abshire, and E. Smela, Lab Chip 7, 955 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darvas, F.

A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doroski, D.

Eidinger, E.

Farrell, G.

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, J. Opt. A 8, 652 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gal, S.

Gat, N.

N. Gat, Proc. SPIE 4056, 50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hannah, M.

Hardeberg, J. Y.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, New J. Phys. 10, 1367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayshi, K.

K. Hirabayshi and T. Kurokawa, Liq. Cryst. 14, 307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoyt, C.

Hoyt, C. C.

Hsin, Y.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. Hsin, L. H. Ren, and S. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Isaac, T. H.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, New J. Phys. 10, 1367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jay, G. D.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, Nature Mater. 6, 929 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, S. A.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, New J. Phys. 10, 1367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. M.

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

Kurokawa, T.

K. Hirabayshi and T. Kurokawa, Liq. Cryst. 14, 307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leahy, R. M.

A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. D.

J. S. Patel and S. D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. Hsin, L. H. Ren, and S. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 3266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. C.

K. C. Lin and W. C. Chuang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Masterson, H. J.

Mendlovic, D.

Miller, P.

Miller, P. J.

P. J. Miller and C. C. Hoyt, Proc. SPIE 2345, 354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moats, R. A.

A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morris, R. H.

Moses, R.

O. Aharon, A. Safrani, R. Moses, and I. Abdulhalim, Proc. SPIE 7050, 70500P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel and S. D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, J.

Patrick, T.

Rees, M. S.

R. S. Seymour, M. S. Rees, J. Staromlynska, J. Richards, and P. Wilson, Opt. Eng. 33, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ren, L. H.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. Hsin, L. H. Ren, and S. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richards, J.

R. S. Seymour, M. S. Rees, J. Staromlynska, J. Richards, and P. Wilson, Opt. Eng. 33, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saeed, S.

S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 3266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Safrani, A.

O. Aharon, A. Safrani, R. Moses, and I. Abdulhalim, Proc. SPIE 7050, 70500P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, New J. Phys. 10, 1367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, F.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, Y.

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, J. Opt. A 8, 652 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seymour, R. S.

R. S. Seymour, M. S. Rees, J. Staromlynska, J. Richards, and P. Wilson, Opt. Eng. 33, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, G. D.

Smela, E.

M. Dandin, P. Abshire, and E. Smela, Lab Chip 7, 955 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. J.

A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sneh, A.

A. Sneh and K. M. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1067 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Staromlynska, J.

R. S. Seymour, M. S. Rees, J. Staromlynska, J. Richards, and P. Wilson, Opt. Eng. 33, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Treado, J. P.

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, J. Opt. A 8, 652 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, P.

R. S. Seymour, M. S. Rees, J. Staromlynska, J. Richards, and P. Wilson, Opt. Eng. 33, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woltman, S. J.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, Nature Mater. 6, 929 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. Hsin, L. H. Ren, and S. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu, Appl. Opt. 28, 48 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Wave in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Wave in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

Zalevsky, Z.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. S. Patel and S. D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. Sneh and K. M. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1067 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, J. Opt. A 8, 652 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. Hsin, L. H. Ren, and S. Wu, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 3266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

M. Dandin, P. Abshire, and E. Smela, Lab Chip 7, 955 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liq. Cryst.

K. Hirabayshi and T. Kurokawa, Liq. Cryst. 14, 307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.

K. C. Lin and W. C. Chuang, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 38, 475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, Nature Mater. 6, 929 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, New J. Phys. 10, 1367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, Opt. Eng. 41, 2532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Seymour, M. S. Rees, J. Staromlynska, J. Richards, and P. Wilson, Opt. Eng. 33, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

A. J. Chaudhari1, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

N. Gat, Proc. SPIE 4056, 50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Miller and C. C. Hoyt, Proc. SPIE 2345, 354 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Sharp and K. M. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 12, 98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Aharon, A. Safrani, R. Moses, and I. Abdulhalim, Proc. SPIE 7050, 70500P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Wave in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the high-dynamic-range filter using a stack of retarders with thicknesses d j = ( 2 j 1 ) d sequentially; each retarder between two crossed polarizers is oriented at 45° to the crystal optic axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission through a high-dynamic-range filter made of three retarders. The solid curve corresponds to the Lyot filter (three retarders) for comparison with the new filter, dashed curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized transmission for the designed filter (dashed curve) and the measured spectrum (solid curve). The thicknesses of the three LC retarders are 2500, 7000, and 12,700 nm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Peak Wavelengths, FWHM, and Corresponding Voltages

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = j = 1 N sin 2 ( ( 2 j 1 ) Γ 2 ) ,
λ peak = 2 d Δ n ( 2 m 1 ) ,
FSR = 2 λ peak ( 2 m + 1 ) .
FWHM λ peak ( 2 N 1 ) ( 2 m 1 ) .
τ = τ v ( V r 2 1 ) ,

Metrics