Abstract

Highly porous coatings having ultralow refractive index (n=1.07) and good transparency were obtained using mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Excellent antireflection performance was achieved with six antireflection layers including the mesoporous film as the top layer. The average reflectance in the entire visible wavelength region (380–780 nm) was 0.040.22% at incident angle of 0°–40°. This facile technique for ultralow reflection coatings is potentially applicable to various optical devices to remove many problems caused by reflection.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Cho, and K. Char, Langmuir 23, 6737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, and S. H. Woo, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosso, C. Boissiere, and C. Sanchez, Nat. Mater. 6, 572 (2007).
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J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 3, 176 (2007).

2006

K. Ikari, K. Suzuki, and H. Imai, Langmuir 22, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu, S. Y. Lin, and J. S. Juneja, Opt. Lett. 31, 601 (2006).
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Y. Y. Liou, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 4051 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Y. Liou and Y. T. Liu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

2004

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[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 6065 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, K. Ikari, and H. Imai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 462 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, Science 283, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Nishide, M. Shinoda, and F. Mizukami, Thin Solid Films 238, 163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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T. I. Yoon, S. Y. Choi, Y. K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 775 (1993).

1992

C. T. Kresge, M. E. Leonowicz, W. J. Roth, J. C. Vartuli, and J. S. Beck, Nature 359, 710 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Annapurna, M. N.

Beck, J. S.

C. T. Kresge, M. E. Leonowicz, W. J. Roth, J. C. Vartuli, and J. S. Beck, Nature 359, 710 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boissiere, C.

D. Grosso, C. Boissiere, and C. Sanchez, Nat. Mater. 6, 572 (2007).
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Chang, D. H.

H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, and S. H. Woo, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Char, K.

S. Kim, J. Cho, and K. Char, Langmuir 23, 6737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 3, 176 (2007).

Cho, J.

S. Kim, J. Cho, and K. Char, Langmuir 23, 6737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. Y.

T. I. Yoon, S. Y. Choi, Y. K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 775 (1993).

Debell, G. W.

Grosso, D.

D. Grosso, C. Boissiere, and C. Sanchez, Nat. Mater. 6, 572 (2007).
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Hwangbo, C. K.

H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, and S. H. Woo, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikari, K.

K. Ikari, K. Suzuki, and H. Imai, Langmuir 22, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Ikari, and H. Imai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 462 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, H.

K. Ikari, K. Suzuki, and H. Imai, Langmuir 22, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Ikari, and H. Imai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 462 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaing, C. C.

Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Liu, C. C. Kuo, W. C. Liu, and C. C. Jaing, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 5143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Juneja, J. S.

Kim, J. K.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 3, 176 (2007).

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu, S. Y. Lin, and J. S. Juneja, Opt. Lett. 31, 601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Cho, and K. Char, Langmuir 23, 6737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kresge, C. T.

C. T. Kresge, M. E. Leonowicz, W. J. Roth, J. C. Vartuli, and J. S. Beck, Nature 359, 710 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S. A.

Kuo, C. C.

Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Liu, C. C. Kuo, W. C. Liu, and C. C. Jaing, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 5143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

T. I. Yoon, S. Y. Choi, Y. K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 775 (1993).

Lee, Y. K.

T. I. Yoon, S. Y. Choi, Y. K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 775 (1993).

Leonowicz, M. E.

C. T. Kresge, M. E. Leonowicz, W. J. Roth, J. C. Vartuli, and J. S. Beck, Nature 359, 710 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

Y. Y. Liou and J. Y. Lin, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 2915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 3, 176 (2007).

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu, S. Y. Lin, and J. S. Juneja, Opt. Lett. 31, 601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liou, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Liu, C. C. Kuo, W. C. Liu, and C. C. Jaing, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 5143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou and J. Y. Lin, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 2915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 4051 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou and Y. T. Liu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou, J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 8462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 1343 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 6065 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. C.

Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Liu, C. C. Kuo, W. C. Liu, and C. C. Jaing, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 5143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 3, 176 (2007).

Liu, W. C.

Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Liu, C. C. Kuo, W. C. Liu, and C. C. Jaing, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 5143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. T.

Y. Y. Liou and Y. T. Liu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. -M.

Mizukami, F.

T. Nishide, M. Shinoda, and F. Mizukami, Thin Solid Films 238, 163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, Science 283, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagendra, C. L.

Nishide, T.

T. Nishide, M. Shinoda, and F. Mizukami, Thin Solid Films 238, 163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, and S. H. Woo, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roth, W. J.

C. T. Kresge, M. E. Leonowicz, W. J. Roth, J. C. Vartuli, and J. S. Beck, Nature 359, 710 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, C.

D. Grosso, C. Boissiere, and C. Sanchez, Nat. Mater. 6, 572 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, E.

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, Science 283, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 3, 176 (2007).

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu, S. Y. Lin, and J. S. Juneja, Opt. Lett. 31, 601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 3, 176 (2007).

Shanbhogue, H. G.

Shinoda, M.

T. Nishide, M. Shinoda, and F. Mizukami, Thin Solid Films 238, 163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 3, 176 (2007).

Sobahan, K. M. A.

H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, and S. H. Woo, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, U.

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, Science 283, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

K. Ikari, K. Suzuki, and H. Imai, Langmuir 22, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Ikari, and H. Imai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 462 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thutupalli, G. K. M.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Trubetskov, M. K.

Vartuli, J. C.

C. T. Kresge, M. E. Leonowicz, W. J. Roth, J. C. Vartuli, and J. S. Beck, Nature 359, 710 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walheim, S.

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, Science 283, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, H.

H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, and S. H. Woo, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woo, S. H.

H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, and S. H. Woo, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. -Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 3, 176 (2007).

J.-Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu, S. Y. Lin, and J. S. Juneja, Opt. Lett. 31, 601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, D.

Yoon, T. I.

T. I. Yoon, S. Y. Choi, Y. K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 775 (1993).

Appl. Opt.

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

K. Suzuki, K. Ikari, and H. Imai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 462 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

Y. Y. Liou, J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 8462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Ceram. Soc.

T. I. Yoon, S. Y. Choi, Y. K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, J. Korean Ceram. Soc. 30, 775 (1993).

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, and S. H. Woo, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

Y. Y. Liou, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 1343 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 6065 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou and J. Y. Lin, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 2915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou, C. C. Liu, C. C. Kuo, W. C. Liu, and C. C. Jaing, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 5143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 4051 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Liou and Y. T. Liu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 44, 163 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

S. Kim, J. Cho, and K. Char, Langmuir 23, 6737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ikari, K. Suzuki, and H. Imai, Langmuir 22, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

D. Grosso, C. Boissiere, and C. Sanchez, Nat. Mater. 6, 572 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 3, 176 (2007).

Nature

C. T. Kresge, M. E. Leonowicz, W. J. Roth, J. C. Vartuli, and J. S. Beck, Nature 359, 710 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, Science 283, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films

T. Nishide, M. Shinoda, and F. Mizukami, Thin Solid Films 238, 163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic for fabrication of a highly porous film from MPS silica nanoparticles obtained with using a cationic surfactant CTA and a nonionic surfactant F127. (b) A scanning electron micrograph of the surface of a thin film consisting of MPS nanoparticles. (c) A transmission electron micrograph of MPS nanoparticles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index of MPS thin film versus F127 concentration of the precursor sol. [ TEOS ] = 0.45   M ; [ CTAC ] = 0.088   M ; [ NH 4 OH ] = 1.51   M ; initial pH 2.0; and stirring time = 1   h .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance of an AR coating with six layers. (a) Reflectance of an AR coating with six layers versus wavelength at normal incidence. The inset shows scale-up spectra. (b) Average reflectance in the entire visible wavelength region versus incident angle.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Construction Parameters of AR Coatings with and without an Ultralow Refractive Index Layer a

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