Abstract

A change of the optical coupling of plasmonic particles was observed upon deformation of a matrix elastomer where 50nm gold particles were embedded. The coupling mode showed higher extinction at the polarization perpendicular to the strain direction than the parallel polarization, as deformation induces interparticle distance change. Simulation by a multiple multipole program confirmed such a spectral change when the orientation of a coupled particle cluster is deformed. The strain vector map was constructed from the microscopy images with different polarizations at the strain-sensitive wavelength.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

T. M. Blättler, A. Binkert, M. Zimmermann, M. Textor, J. Vörös, and E. Reimhult, Nanotechnology 19, 075301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. T. Yang, N. J. Sniadecki, and C. S. Chen, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Correa-Duarte, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, A. Rinaldi, K. Sieradzki, M. Giersig, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, Gold Bull. 40, 7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Hafner, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 1685 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y. Dirix, C. Bastiaansen, W. Caseri, and P. Smith, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Dembo and Y. Wang, Biophys. J. 76, 2307 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Klinkenberg, P. Blümler, and B. Blümich, J. Magn. Reson. Ser. A 119, 197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

Bastiaansen, C.

Y. Dirix, C. Bastiaansen, W. Caseri, and P. Smith, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Binkert, A.

T. M. Blättler, A. Binkert, M. Zimmermann, M. Textor, J. Vörös, and E. Reimhult, Nanotechnology 19, 075301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blättler, T. M.

T. M. Blättler, A. Binkert, M. Zimmermann, M. Textor, J. Vörös, and E. Reimhult, Nanotechnology 19, 075301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blümich, B.

M. Klinkenberg, P. Blümler, and B. Blümich, J. Magn. Reson. Ser. A 119, 197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blümler, P.

M. Klinkenberg, P. Blümler, and B. Blümich, J. Magn. Reson. Ser. A 119, 197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

Caseri, W.

Y. Dirix, C. Bastiaansen, W. Caseri, and P. Smith, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. S.

M. T. Yang, N. J. Sniadecki, and C. S. Chen, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Correa-Duarte, M. A.

M. A. Correa-Duarte, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, A. Rinaldi, K. Sieradzki, M. Giersig, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, Gold Bull. 40, 7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dembo, M.

M. Dembo and Y. Wang, Biophys. J. 76, 2307 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirix, Y.

Y. Dirix, C. Bastiaansen, W. Caseri, and P. Smith, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 1685 (2004).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

Giersig, M.

M. A. Correa-Duarte, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, A. Rinaldi, K. Sieradzki, M. Giersig, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, Gold Bull. 40, 7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, Ch.

Ch. Hafner, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 1685 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Klinkenberg, M.

M. Klinkenberg, P. Blümler, and B. Blümich, J. Magn. Reson. Ser. A 119, 197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Plasmonics 1, 5 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liz-Marzán, L. M.

M. A. Correa-Duarte, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, A. Rinaldi, K. Sieradzki, M. Giersig, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, Gold Bull. 40, 7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reimhult, E.

T. M. Blättler, A. Binkert, M. Zimmermann, M. Textor, J. Vörös, and E. Reimhult, Nanotechnology 19, 075301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinaldi, A.

M. A. Correa-Duarte, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, A. Rinaldi, K. Sieradzki, M. Giersig, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, Gold Bull. 40, 7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romero, I.

Salgueiriño-Maceira, V.

M. A. Correa-Duarte, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, A. Rinaldi, K. Sieradzki, M. Giersig, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, Gold Bull. 40, 7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sieradzki, K.

M. A. Correa-Duarte, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, A. Rinaldi, K. Sieradzki, M. Giersig, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, Gold Bull. 40, 7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P.

Y. Dirix, C. Bastiaansen, W. Caseri, and P. Smith, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sniadecki, N. J.

M. T. Yang, N. J. Sniadecki, and C. S. Chen, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Textor, M.

T. M. Blättler, A. Binkert, M. Zimmermann, M. Textor, J. Vörös, and E. Reimhult, Nanotechnology 19, 075301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vörös, J.

T. M. Blättler, A. Binkert, M. Zimmermann, M. Textor, J. Vörös, and E. Reimhult, Nanotechnology 19, 075301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

M. Dembo and Y. Wang, Biophys. J. 76, 2307 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, M. T.

M. T. Yang, N. J. Sniadecki, and C. S. Chen, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, M.

T. M. Blättler, A. Binkert, M. Zimmermann, M. Textor, J. Vörös, and E. Reimhult, Nanotechnology 19, 075301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (3)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 1685 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dirix, C. Bastiaansen, W. Caseri, and P. Smith, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 11, 223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Yang, N. J. Sniadecki, and C. S. Chen, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

M. Dembo and Y. Wang, Biophys. J. 76, 2307 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gold Bull. (1)

M. A. Correa-Duarte, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, A. Rinaldi, K. Sieradzki, M. Giersig, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, Gold Bull. 40, 7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Reson. Ser. A (1)

M. Klinkenberg, P. Blümler, and B. Blümich, J. Magn. Reson. Ser. A 119, 197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

T. M. Blättler, A. Binkert, M. Zimmermann, M. Textor, J. Vörös, and E. Reimhult, Nanotechnology 19, 075301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

Ch. Hafner, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plasmonics (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, Plasmonics 1, 5 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of (a) sparsely and (b) densely packed 2D NP layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction spectra (a) without strain and (b) with strain of 12.8% at different polarizations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic illustration of simulated particle clusters consisting of 7, 13, and 19 NPs (φ, 50 nm ; original gap, 5 nm ), which are stretched horizontally and vertically (arrows) by 5%. (b) Extinction spectra after and before stretch, which are averaged over 7, 13, and 19 NP clusters and for both stretch directions. The extinction cross section is normalized by particle number. Electric field patterns of upper-right half of the 13 NP cluster at λ = 670 nm with (c) horizontal and (d) vertical stretches.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

IDR plots (a) as a function of polarization angle and (b) as a function of strain. The solid lines are fitted curves by (a) sinus and (b) square-root functions. (c) Schematics of local strain application. (d) Bright-field image, (e) I 90 0 image, and (f) I 135 45 image when 8% stretch was applied. The arrows in (e) and (f) indicate the polarization directions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Strain mapping constructed from I 90 0 and I 135 45 images of Fig. 4. The shadow of the needle is superimposed. (b) Simulated strain distribution by FEM at 8% strain application. The arrows indicate strain vectors.

Equations (4)

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I 90 0 = ( I 90 I 0 ) I nonpol ,
I 135 45 = ( I 135 I 45 ) I nonpol ,
S cos 2 θ = A ( I 90 0 ) ,
S sin 2 θ = A ( I 135 45 ) ,

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