Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally negative refraction by a photonic crystal prism and imaging of a point source by a photonic crystal slab at 1.5μm wavelength. The photonic crystal structures were nanofabricated in a InGaAsPInP heterostructure platform, and optical characterization was performed using a near-field scanning optical microscope. By designing a suitable lens surface termination, an image spot size of 0.12λ2 was achieved, demonstrating superlens imaging with subwavelength resolution well below Abbe’s diffraction limit (0.5λ2).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (2)

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

V. M. Shalaev, Nature Photon. 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, B. Miao, T. R. Hodson, C. Lin, J. A. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, Opt. Express 15, 1286 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

T. Decoopman, G. Tayeb, S. Enoch, D. Maystre, and B. Gralak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, K. S. Eom, and T. Baba, Opt. Lett. 31, 2786 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, R.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cluzel, B.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Fornel, F.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decoopman, T.

T. Decoopman, G. Tayeb, S. Enoch, D. Maystre, and B. Gralak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dios, Z.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doan, M. T.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

T. Decoopman, G. Tayeb, S. Enoch, D. Maystre, and B. Gralak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eom, K. S.

Fabre, N.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gralak, B.

T. Decoopman, G. Tayeb, S. Enoch, D. Maystre, and B. Gralak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodson, T. R.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, L. J.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalouat, L.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

Lippens, D.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, K.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, W. T.

Lu, Z.

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

Maystre, D.

T. Decoopman, G. Tayeb, S. Enoch, D. Maystre, and B. Gralak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melique, X.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, B.

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakowski, J. A.

Narimanov, E.

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W.

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V.

Prather, D. W.

Qiu, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schonbrun, E.

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, Nature Photon. 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sridhar, S.

Summers, C. J.

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swillo, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tayeb, G.

T. Decoopman, G. Tayeb, S. Enoch, D. Maystre, and B. Gralak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thylén, L.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanbesien, O.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, T.

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (1)

V. M. Shalaev, Nature Photon. 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B.Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Decoopman, G. Tayeb, S. Enoch, D. Maystre, and B. Gralak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, Science 316, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Band structure of a square PhC consisting of air holes with r a = 0.31 in ϵ eff = 10.44 for the TE modes (solid curves) and ϵ eff = 10.34 for the TM modes (dashed curves). The horizontal dashed line is at λ = 1.52 μ m for a = 470 nm . (b) FDTD simulation of TE polarized light beam showing negative refraction at the PhC prism–air interface. The incident beam with k i is in the dense medium with ϵ eff . (c) Image of the right angle PhC prism captured with a 50 × long-focal-distance microscope objective. The arrow indicates the direction of input light from the waveguide. The illuminated region inside the PhC prism was imaged with a high-sensitivity near-IR camera, and (d) is a NSOM area scan ( 30 μ m × 30 μ m ) showing the negatively refracted beam in free space (dashed arrow).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

IR picture showing the point source, and the corresponding image formed by the flat lens for a source at wavelength λ = 1.51 μ m . The IR image is overlaid on a scanning electron microscope image of the nanofabricated structure of flat lens and point source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(c) show the SEM images of the various designs overlaid with the corresponding NSOM scans at λ = 1.52 μ m at the object and image planes. (a) Original design A with extra padding dielectric layers produced a focused spot of 1.4 λ at FWHM. (b) Design B with a cut through the middle of the air holes at the surface termination of the object plane yielded a focused spot of 1.0 λ . (c) Optimized design C with cuts through the middle of the air holes on both sides and waveguide tapered to 50 nm . The focused spot achieved by this design is 0.4 λ . The spatial profile of the focused spot size in the (d) transverse (T) and (e) longitudinal (L) directions for the three designs are presented and compared with a theoretical diffraction limited (DL) profile ( λ 2 for T and λ for L). Note that the NSOM images presented are raw data with a threshold applied to remove background noise.

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