Abstract

We report new optics designs for an optical coherence tomography (OCT) balloon imaging catheter to achieve diffraction-limited high resolution at a large working distance and enable the correction of severe astigmatism in the catheter. The designs employed a 1 mm diameter gradient-index lens of a properly chosen pitch number and a glass rod spacer to fully utilize the available NA of the miniature optics. Astigmatism caused by the balloon tubing was analyzed, and a method based on a cylindrical reflector was proposed and demonstrated to compensate the astigmatism. A catheter based on the new designs was successfully developed with a measured diffraction-limited lateral resolution of 21μm, a working distance of 1112  mm, and a round-shape beam profile. The performance of the OCT balloon catheter was demonstrated by 3D full-circumferential imaging of a swine esophagus in vivo along with a high-speed, Fourier-domain, mode-locked swept-source OCT system.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. J. Cobb, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, D. J. MacDonald, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuI26.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, J. Schmitt, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 17, 784 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, Appl. Opt. 43, 113 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. L. Wang, B. V. Hunter, M. J. Cobb, and X. D. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2000 (3)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

Adler, D. C.

Barton, J. K.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, Appl. Opt. 43, 113 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 912 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 912 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 912 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chak, A.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

M. J. Cobb, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, D. J. MacDonald, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuI26.

Chen, Y. C.

Cobb, M. J.

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Wang, B. V. Hunter, M. J. Cobb, and X. D. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 1763 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cobb, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, D. J. MacDonald, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuI26.

Compton, C. C.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, A.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. L.

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Hariri, L. P.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, Appl. Opt. 43, 113 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

Huber, R.

Hunter, B. V.

D. L. Wang, B. V. Hunter, M. J. Cobb, and X. D. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. H.

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cobb, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, D. J. MacDonald, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuI26.

Isenberg, G.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isenberg, G. A.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimmey, M. B.

X. M. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 1763 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cobb, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, D. J. MacDonald, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuI26.

Klein, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krinsky, M. L.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lauwers, G. Y.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leng, Y.

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Wang, B. V. Hunter, M. J. Cobb, and X. D. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 1763 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cobb, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, D. J. MacDonald, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuI26.

Liu, X. M.

MacDonald, D. J.

M. J. Cobb, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, D. J. MacDonald, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuI26.

Mashimo, H.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, J. Schmitt, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 17, 784 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McNally, J.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mutinga, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Povazay, B.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, D. Y.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

Shishkov, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 1358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 912 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. -H.

Tumlinson, A. R.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, Appl. Opt. 43, 113 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ung-arunyawee, R.

Ung-runyawee, R.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Upton, M. P.

M. J. Cobb, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, D. J. MacDonald, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuI26.

Utzinger, U.

Vakoc, B. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. L. Wang, B. V. Hunter, M. J. Cobb, and X. D. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1596 (2007).
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M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
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G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825 (2005).
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M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Endoscopy (1)

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (4)

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. L. Wang, B. V. Hunter, M. J. Cobb, and X. D. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. L. Fu, Y. Leng, M. J. Cobb, K. Hsu, J. H. Hwang, and X. D. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060502 (2008).
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A. R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J. K. Barton, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

M. J. Cobb, M. P. Upton, Y. Chen, D. J. MacDonald, J. H. Hwang, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuI26.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Catheter schematics of (A) a compound-lens configuration and (B) a single GRIN lens configuration. A cylindrical reflector [shown in the insets of (A) and (B)] is used to redirect the light by 90° and to correct the astigmatism caused by the inner balloon lumen. (C) and (D) are the calculated focused spot size and the maximum beam diameter within the GRIN lens versus the GRIN lens pitch number for the compound- and single-lens configurations, respectively. The target working distance was 10 mm in the calculation. The optimal pitch numbers, i.e., 0.1 and 0.05 for the compound- and single-lens configurations, respectively, are determined when the maximum beam diameter within the GRIN lens reaches 80% of the GRIN lens diameter, and the resultant finest resolution is 20 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Logarithm of the calculated astigmatism ratio versus the ratio of the tube thickness Δ R to tube radius for several tube radii R. The results show that the beam profile distortion increases with the ratio of Δ R / R , and the distortion becomes more severe for a tube of a smaller radius. (B) Calculated beam spot size in the azimuthal direction on the target focus plane (i.e., 10 mm away from the GRIN lens and perpendicular to the beam axis) and the actual focused position on the azimuthal direction versus the curvature radius of the astigmatism-correcting cylindrical reflector. Simulation shows that a cylindrical reflector with an 20.5   mm radius could refocus the beam back to the target working distance. (C) Photograph of the beam profile on the target focal plane when a conventional flat reflector was used in the catheter, where severe distortion was evident. (D) Photograph of the beam profile when a cylindrical concave reflector of an 20.5   mm radius was used, where an approximately circular beam profile was restored.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative real-time OCT images of a pig esophagus in vivo acquired with the balloon imaging catheter in conjunction with an FDML SS-OCT system. (A) 2D snapshot and (B) 3D cutaway view. Different stratified layers of the esophagus can be clearly identified, including epithelium (E), lamina propria (LP), muscularis mucosae (SM), submucosae (SM), muscularis propria (MP), and the submucosal gland as labeled in (A).

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