Abstract

In this work, experimental results on the optical characterization of alcohol-infiltrated silicon/air one-dimensional photonic crystals (1D-PhCs), fabricated by electrochemical micromachining of silicon, are presented. The spectral reflectivity of high-order hybrid 1D-PhCs with a spatial period of 8μm was measured, in the wavelength range 1.01.7μm, when alcohols (ethanol and isopropanol) substitute air inside the trenches. A reliable redshift is observed in the presence of alcohols, with respect to air, which allows one to discriminate the refractive index difference between the alcohols. Experimental data are in good agreement with numerical results calculated by using the characteristic matrix method, modified to take into account surface roughness of silicon walls.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Boutami, B. Ben Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, and P. Rojo-Romeo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 244 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Barillaro, S. Merlo, L. M. Strambini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1074 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Barillaro, L. Strambini, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, and S. Merlo, “Optical characterization of high-order 1D silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and M. Piotto, Sens. Actuators, A 102, 195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Barillaro, S. Merlo, L. M. Strambini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1074 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Boutami, B. Ben Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, and P. Rojo-Romeo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and F. Pieri, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, C180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and M. Piotto, Sens. Actuators, A 102, 195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Annovazzi-Lodi, V.

G. Barillaro, L. Strambini, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, and S. Merlo, “Optical characterization of high-order 1D silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Barillaro, G.

G. Barillaro, S. Merlo, L. M. Strambini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1074 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and F. Pieri, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, C180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and M. Piotto, Sens. Actuators, A 102, 195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Barillaro, L. Strambini, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, and S. Merlo, “Optical characterization of high-order 1D silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Ben Bakir, B.

S. Boutami, B. Ben Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, and P. Rojo-Romeo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boutami, S.

S. Boutami, B. Ben Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, and P. Rojo-Romeo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collins, M.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillet, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leclercq, J.-L.

S. Boutami, B. Ben Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, and P. Rojo-Romeo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

S. Boutami, B. Ben Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, and P. Rojo-Romeo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahmud, T.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Merlo, S.

G. Barillaro, S. Merlo, L. M. Strambini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1074 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Barillaro, L. Strambini, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, and S. Merlo, “Optical characterization of high-order 1D silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Mitchell, A.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mutzenich, S.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nannini, A.

G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and F. Pieri, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, C180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and M. Piotto, Sens. Actuators, A 102, 195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pieri, F.

G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and F. Pieri, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, C180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piotto, M.

G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and M. Piotto, Sens. Actuators, A 102, 195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

S. Boutami, B. Ben Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, and P. Rojo-Romeo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosengarten, G.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

S. Boutami, B. Ben Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, and P. Rojo-Romeo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strambini, L.

G. Barillaro, L. Strambini, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, and S. Merlo, “Optical characterization of high-order 1D silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Strambini, L. M.

G. Barillaro, S. Merlo, L. M. Strambini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1074 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

G. Barillaro, S. Merlo, L. M. Strambini, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1074 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Barillaro, L. Strambini, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, and S. Merlo, “Optical characterization of high-order 1D silicon photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

S. Boutami, B. Ben Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, and P. Rojo-Romeo, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and F. Pieri, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, C180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, M. Collins, B. J. Eggleton, M. Cronin-Golomb, S. Mutzenich, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, and A. Mitchell, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators, A (1)

G. Barillaro, A. Nannini, and M. Piotto, Sens. Actuators, A 102, 195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber-optic setup for reflectivity measurements and upper view of the measured device taken with an optical microscope. WLS, white-light source; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental data of reflected power spectra ( RB = 10 nm ) . (a) Gray trace (pink online), reference, with air in the gaps, before addition of EtOH; black trace (blue online), with EtOH in the gaps; dotted trace, with air in the gaps, after evaporation of EtOH. (b) Gray trace (pink online), reference, with air in the gaps, before addition of IPA; black trace (blue online), with IPA in the gaps; dotted trace, with air in the gaps, after evaporation of IPA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between measured and calculated reflectivity spectra. (a) Reference, with air in the gaps. (b) Effect of EtOH. (c) Effect of IPA. Gray traces (pink online), experimental data of normalized reflectivity; black traces (blue online), calculated reflectivity, best fitted to experimental data with D = 0.6 and σ D = 1 × 10 3 .

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