Abstract

We present an optical method for the nanoscopic inspection of surfaces. The method is based on the spectral and polarization analysis of the light scattered by a probe nanoparticle close to the inspected surface. We explore the sensitivity to changes either in the probe–surface distance or in the refractive index of the surface.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Ozbay, Science 189, 311 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (1)

2007 (3)

A. G. Davies and J. M. T. Thompson, Advances in Nanoengineering: Electronics, Materials and Assembly (Imperial College Press, 2007).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Nano Lett. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Håkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 6.1 (2004), http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0409262v2.

2003 (2)

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Albella, P.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, S.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Håkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

A. G. Davies and J. M. T. Thompson, Advances in Nanoengineering: Electronics, Materials and Assembly (Imperial College Press, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Draine, B. T.

B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 6.1 (2004), http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0409262v2.

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flatau, P. J.

B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 6.1 (2004), http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0409262v2.

García-Cámara, B.

González, F.

Håkanson, U.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Håkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henkel, C.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Håkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kalkbrenner, T.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Håkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersting, R.

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, H. W.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, J. E.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Nano Lett. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.-S.

T.-J. Wang and W.-S. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerland, R. J.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Nano Lett. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, F.

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, Science 189, 311 (2006).

Park, D. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramstein, M.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saiz, J. M.

Sandoghdar, V.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Håkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schädle, A.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Håkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Nano Lett. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taminiau, T. H.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Nano Lett. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, J. M. T.

A. G. Davies and J. M. T. Thompson, Advances in Nanoengineering: Electronics, Materials and Assembly (Imperial College Press, 2007).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Nano Lett. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.-J.

T.-J. Wang and W.-S. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woo, D. H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y. C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Wang and W.-S. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Nano Lett. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and S. Kim, Nat. Photonics 1, 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Håkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, Science 189, 311 (2006).

Other (2)

A. G. Davies and J. M. T. Thompson, Advances in Nanoengineering: Electronics, Materials and Assembly (Imperial College Press, 2007).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 6.1 (2004), http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0409262v2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattering geometry. The inset shows a possible experimental arrangement, where the detector contains a long working distance microscope objective.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of P L for a 40 nm NP located at different values of h. The inset shows the polar radiation diagram in log scale for an NP located at h = 8 and h = 2 nm , respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of P L for different substrate refractive indexes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum of P L for a 80 nm nanocube located at different values of h. The inset shows the polar radiation diagram for an NP located at h = 8 nm and h = 4 nm , respectively.

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