Abstract

We propose a fiber-based hand-held scanning probe suitable for the sample arm of an optical imaging system including optical coherence tomography. To achieve compactness, a single-body lensed-fiber and a solenoid actuator were utilized. The focusing lens of the probe was directly formed onto the distal end of a fiber, which eliminated the need for additional optical components and optical alignment. A ferromagnetic iron bead was glued onto the middle of the fiber to enable actuation by magnetic force, which allowed easy fabrication and good practicality. The fiber piece having the built-in fiber lens was forced to oscillate in its resonant frequency. With the implemented probe, optical coherence tomography images of a human fingertip and a pearl were obtained at an imaging speed of 30 frames/s over a scanning range of 4mm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

N. Dhaubanjar, H. Hu, D. Dave, P. Phuyal, J. Sin, H. Stephanou, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6414, 64141Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Palm III, Mechanical Vibration (Wiley, 2007).

2006

H. P. Hu, K. D. Le, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6109, 610906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Zara and P. E. Patterson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Xie, S. Guo, and Z. Chen, Opt. Express 14, 3238 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2002

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, and G. V. Gelikonov, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B.E.Bouma and G.J.Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2002), pp. 125-142.

1998

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, K. J.

Brenner, M.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Chiao, J.-C.

N. Dhaubanjar, H. Hu, D. Dave, P. Phuyal, J. Sin, H. Stephanou, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6414, 64141Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Hu, K. D. Le, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6109, 610906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. Y.

Choi, W. J.

Cobb, M. J.

Courtney, B. K.

Dave, D.

N. Dhaubanjar, H. Hu, D. Dave, P. Phuyal, J. Sin, H. Stephanou, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6414, 64141Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dhaubanjar, N.

N. Dhaubanjar, H. Hu, D. Dave, P. Phuyal, J. Sin, H. Stephanou, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6414, 64141Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, and G. V. Gelikonov, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B.E.Bouma and G.J.Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2002), pp. 125-142.

Gelikonov, V. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, and G. V. Gelikonov, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B.E.Bouma and G.J.Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2002), pp. 125-142.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, H.

N. Dhaubanjar, H. Hu, D. Dave, P. Phuyal, J. Sin, H. Stephanou, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6414, 64141Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H. P.

H. P. Hu, K. D. Le, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6109, 610906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, K. D.

H. P. Hu, K. D. Le, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6109, 610906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. Y.

Liu, X.

Luk, T.

Mariampillai, A.

Mukai, D. S.

Munce, N. R.

Na, J.

Palm, W. J.

W. J. Palm III, Mechanical Vibration (Wiley, 2007).

Patterson, P. E.

J. M. Zara and P. E. Patterson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phuyal, P.

N. Dhaubanjar, H. Hu, D. Dave, P. Phuyal, J. Sin, H. Stephanou, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6414, 64141Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pop, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. Y.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, and G. V. Gelikonov, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B.E.Bouma and G.J.Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2002), pp. 125-142.

Sin, J.

N. Dhaubanjar, H. Hu, D. Dave, P. Phuyal, J. Sin, H. Stephanou, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6414, 64141Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Standish, B. A.

Stephanou, H.

N. Dhaubanjar, H. Hu, D. Dave, P. Phuyal, J. Sin, H. Stephanou, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6414, 64141Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, P. H.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wright, G. A.

Xie, T.

Yang, V. X. D.

Zara, J. M.

J. M. Zara and P. E. Patterson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. M. Zara and P. E. Patterson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

N. Dhaubanjar, H. Hu, D. Dave, P. Phuyal, J. Sin, H. Stephanou, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6414, 64141Z (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Hu, K. D. Le, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. SPIE 6109, 610906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, and G. V. Gelikonov, in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B.E.Bouma and G.J.Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2002), pp. 125-142.

W. J. Palm III, Mechanical Vibration (Wiley, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the probe, (b) photograph of the implemented probe, and (c) photograph of the iron-bead loaded fiber, the solenoid, and the polycarbonate housing used for implementing the probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity of the beam backreflected (a) from a mirror located in front of the probe and displaced along the length and (b) from a sharp-edge reflector located at the focal plane of the probe and displaced across the plane. The inset shows a photograph of the implemented single-body lensed-fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the iron-bead loaded single-body lensed fiber under oscillation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scanning range of the implemented probe measured with respect to the driving frequency and (b) the track of a He–Ne laser beam under scanning.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OCT images of (a) a human fingertip and (b) a pearl obtained by using the proposed scanning probe. The images (c) and (d) were obtained from (a) and (b) by doing a series of signal processing for compensating the sinusoidal motion and the angular projection problems of the oscillating fiber probe.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m e d 2 l d t 2 + k f l = F m g .
k f = 3 E I x 1 3 ,
l t = 2 ( l 1 + l 2 ) = 2 ( 1 + 3 2 x 2 x 1 ) x 1 3 3 F m g E I .

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