Abstract

Nonadiabatic tapers in hollow-core air–silica photonic bandgap fibers (PBFs) were fabricated by the use of a fiber fusion splicer. In addition to the well-known scaling down of fiber dimensions, the innermost rings of air holes were found collapsed or significantly deformed, which results in almost doubling the diameter of the hollow core in the tapered region. The tapering of the PBF causes coupling of the fundamental core mode to a surface mode with 10% higher effective mode index. An in-fiber core–surface mode interferometer was constructed by cascading two such tapers along the PBF. The interferometer was experimentally demonstrated for strain and temperature measurement, and the sensitivities of the interferometric peak wavelength to strain and temperature are measured to be 0.64  pm/με and 495.6  pm/(°C   m), respectively.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, Appl. Opt. 42, 3509 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, Opt. Express 16, 2784 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. T. Cassidy, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, Appl. Opt. 24, 945 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, Opt. Lett. 11, 671 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. D. Love, W. J. Stewart, W. M. Henry, R. J. Black, and S. Lacroix, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 355 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Commun. 271, 391 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Ju, W. Jin, and H. L. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1899 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, Appl. Opt. 38, 3450 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Saitoh, N. A. Mortensen, and M. Koshiba, Opt. Express 12, 394 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y.-G. Han, S. B. Lee, C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Express 11, 476 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Commun. 271, 391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, Appl. Opt. 42, 3509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, Appl. Opt. 38, 3450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. D. Love, W. J. Stewart, W. M. Henry, R. J. Black, and S. Lacroix, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 355 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. J. Stewart, W. M. Henry, R. J. Black, and S. Lacroix, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 355 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bures, J.

Cassidy, D. T.

Chung, Y.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Commun. 271, 391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, M. T.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonthier, F.

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 355 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, Opt. Lett. 11, 671 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y. -G.

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. J. Stewart, W. M. Henry, R. J. Black, and S. Lacroix, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

Ho, H. L.

Hoo, Y. L.

Jin, W.

Johnson, D. C.

Ju, J.

Kang, J. U.

Kim, C. -S.

Kino, G. S.

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Commun. 271, 391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, K. W.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

Lacroix, S.

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 355 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love, W. J. Stewart, W. M. Henry, R. J. Black, and S. Lacroix, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, Opt. Lett. 11, 671 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, S. B.

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. J. Stewart, W. M. Henry, R. J. Black, and S. Lacroix, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 355 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortensen, N. A.

Müller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

Ohashi, M.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ozcan, A.

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Commun. 271, 391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. -C.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, S. C.

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saitoh, K.

Shi, C.

Shiraki, K.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. M.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. J. Stewart, W. M. Henry, R. J. Black, and S. Lacroix, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tewary, A.

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Commun. 271, 391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraman, N.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, Y.

West, J. A.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, L.

Xuan, H.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. (2)

J. D. Love, W. J. Stewart, W. M. Henry, R. J. Black, and S. Lacroix, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 138, 355 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Ju, W. Jin, and H. L. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1899 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Commun. 271, 391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (2)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscopy images of (a) untapered and (b) tapered PBF cross sections. (c) Side view of the tapered region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of a PBF with and without a taper.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) In-fiber MZI and (b) its transmission spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field intensity pattern observed at a location of 2   mm from the taper waist.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature and strain response of the interference peak wavelength around 1570 nm.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ λ = λ 2 Δ n L ,

Metrics