Abstract

A fiber-optic intrinsic distributed acoustic emission (AE) sensor is proposed. By measuring the time delay of two signals from two Mach–Zehnder interferometers, the location of AE can be deduced, and the corresponding sensor is experimentally verified to be feasible with a 206 m average location error in a 20 km sensing range, which shows that this proposed sensor is applicable for distributed AE sensing for large structure health monitoring, with the unique advantages of low cost, simple configuration, and long sensing range. The limitations of the proposed sensor are also discussed, and the future work is presented.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

C. Zhang, X. Bao, W. Li, L. Chen, A. Deif, B. Cousin, and B. Martín-Pérez, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041T (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Diaz, S. F. Mafang, M. Lopez-Amo, and L. Thévenaz, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Hang, C. He, and B. Wu, Opt. Eng. 47, 054401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wild and S. Hinckley, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, P. Theobald, M. Gower, S. Malik, J. Burns, E. Fernandes, G. Bryce, and G. F. Fernando, Proc. SPIE 6932, 693237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, S. Lee, and D. Yoon, J. Opt. A 10, 085307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, Y. Shi, N. Shan, and X. Yuan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

N. Ming, H. Yang, S. Xiong, and Y. Hu, Appl. Opt. 45, 2387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsuo, H. Cho, and M. Takemoto, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7, 104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, S. V. Huffel, and D. Inaudi, Proc. SPIE 5855, 1064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, K. Nagata, Y. Machijima, and F. Matsumura, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, S52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, Opt. Lett. 303269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

C. Sun, Y. Liang, and F. Ansari, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Kuang, S. Y. Dong, M. Zhang, and Y. B. Liao, Proc. SPIE 5577, 678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, and S. V. Huffel, Proc. SPIE 5391, 72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. Park, S. Lee, O. Kwon, H. Choi, and J. Lee, Composites, Part A 34, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Rice, R. Duncan, D. Gifford, and B. Childers, in Proceedings of the IEEE Systems Readiness Technology Conference (2003), pp. 505-514.

C. Sun, Opt. Lett. 28, 1001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Ansari, F.

C. Sun, Y. Liang, and F. Ansari, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

C. Zhang, X. Bao, W. Li, L. Chen, A. Deif, B. Cousin, and B. Martín-Pérez, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bryce, G.

R. Chen, P. Theobald, M. Gower, S. Malik, J. Burns, E. Fernandes, G. Bryce, and G. F. Fernando, Proc. SPIE 6932, 693237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burns, J.

R. Chen, P. Theobald, M. Gower, S. Malik, J. Burns, E. Fernandes, G. Bryce, and G. F. Fernando, Proc. SPIE 6932, 693237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Butter, C. D.

Cai, Z. P.

Chen, L.

C. Zhang, X. Bao, W. Li, L. Chen, A. Deif, B. Cousin, and B. Martín-Pérez, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, P. Theobald, M. Gower, S. Malik, J. Burns, E. Fernandes, G. Bryce, and G. F. Fernando, Proc. SPIE 6932, 693237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Childers, B.

T. Rice, R. Duncan, D. Gifford, and B. Childers, in Proceedings of the IEEE Systems Readiness Technology Conference (2003), pp. 505-514.

Cho, H.

T. Matsuo, H. Cho, and M. Takemoto, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7, 104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

J. Park, S. Lee, O. Kwon, H. Choi, and J. Lee, Composites, Part A 34, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. L.

Cousin, B.

C. Zhang, X. Bao, W. Li, L. Chen, A. Deif, B. Cousin, and B. Martín-Pérez, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, X. Z.

Dandridge, A.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Deif, A.

C. Zhang, X. Bao, W. Li, L. Chen, A. Deif, B. Cousin, and B. Martín-Pérez, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, S.

S. Diaz, S. F. Mafang, M. Lopez-Amo, and L. Thévenaz, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, S. Y.

W. Kuang, S. Y. Dong, M. Zhang, and Y. B. Liao, Proc. SPIE 5577, 678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, R.

T. Rice, R. Duncan, D. Gifford, and B. Childers, in Proceedings of the IEEE Systems Readiness Technology Conference (2003), pp. 505-514.

Fernandes, E.

R. Chen, P. Theobald, M. Gower, S. Malik, J. Burns, E. Fernandes, G. Bryce, and G. F. Fernando, Proc. SPIE 6932, 693237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernando, G. F.

R. Chen, P. Theobald, M. Gower, S. Malik, J. Burns, E. Fernandes, G. Bryce, and G. F. Fernando, Proc. SPIE 6932, 693237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giallorenzi, T. G.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gifford, D.

T. Rice, R. Duncan, D. Gifford, and B. Childers, in Proceedings of the IEEE Systems Readiness Technology Conference (2003), pp. 505-514.

Gower, M.

R. Chen, P. Theobald, M. Gower, S. Malik, J. Burns, E. Fernandes, G. Bryce, and G. F. Fernando, Proc. SPIE 6932, 693237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hang, L.

L. Hang, C. He, and B. Wu, Opt. Eng. 47, 054401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, C.

L. Hang, C. He, and B. Wu, Opt. Eng. 47, 054401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hinckley, S.

G. Wild and S. Hinckley, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hocker, G. B.

Hu, Y.

Huffel, S. V.

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, S. V. Huffel, and D. Inaudi, Proc. SPIE 5855, 1064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, and S. V. Huffel, Proc. SPIE 5391, 72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inaudi, D.

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, S. V. Huffel, and D. Inaudi, Proc. SPIE 5855, 1064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kageyama, K.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, K. Nagata, Y. Machijima, and F. Matsumura, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, S52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, M.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, K. Nagata, Y. Machijima, and F. Matsumura, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, S52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

Kuang, W.

W. Kuang, S. Y. Dong, M. Zhang, and Y. B. Liao, Proc. SPIE 5577, 678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O.

J. Park, S. Lee, O. Kwon, H. Choi, and J. Lee, Composites, Part A 34, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, S. Lee, and D. Yoon, J. Opt. A 10, 085307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Park, S. Lee, O. Kwon, H. Choi, and J. Lee, Composites, Part A 34, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. Lee, S. Lee, and D. Yoon, J. Opt. A 10, 085307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Park, S. Lee, O. Kwon, H. Choi, and J. Lee, Composites, Part A 34, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

C. Zhang, X. Bao, W. Li, L. Chen, A. Deif, B. Cousin, and B. Martín-Pérez, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

C. Sun, Y. Liang, and F. Ansari, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y. B.

W. Kuang, S. Y. Dong, M. Zhang, and Y. B. Liao, Proc. SPIE 5577, 678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Amo, M.

S. Diaz, S. F. Mafang, M. Lopez-Amo, and L. Thévenaz, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z. Q.

Machijima, Y.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, K. Nagata, Y. Machijima, and F. Matsumura, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, S52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mafang, S. F.

S. Diaz, S. F. Mafang, M. Lopez-Amo, and L. Thévenaz, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malik, S.

R. Chen, P. Theobald, M. Gower, S. Malik, J. Burns, E. Fernandes, G. Bryce, and G. F. Fernando, Proc. SPIE 6932, 693237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Pérez, B.

C. Zhang, X. Bao, W. Li, L. Chen, A. Deif, B. Cousin, and B. Martín-Pérez, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsumura, F.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, K. Nagata, Y. Machijima, and F. Matsumura, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, S52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, T.

T. Matsuo, H. Cho, and M. Takemoto, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7, 104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minardo, A.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ming, N.

Murayama, H.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, K. Nagata, Y. Machijima, and F. Matsumura, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, S52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, K.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, K. Nagata, Y. Machijima, and F. Matsumura, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, S52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohsawa, I.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, K. Nagata, Y. Machijima, and F. Matsumura, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, S52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Papy, J.

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, S. V. Huffel, and D. Inaudi, Proc. SPIE 5855, 1064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, and S. V. Huffel, Proc. SPIE 5391, 72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. Park, S. Lee, O. Kwon, H. Choi, and J. Lee, Composites, Part A 34, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rice, T.

T. Rice, R. Duncan, D. Gifford, and B. Childers, in Proceedings of the IEEE Systems Readiness Technology Conference (2003), pp. 505-514.

Shan, N.

J. Zhao, Y. Shi, N. Shan, and X. Yuan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

J. Zhao, Y. Shi, N. Shan, and X. Yuan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, Y. Liang, and F. Ansari, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Sun, Opt. Lett. 28, 1001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takemoto, M.

T. Matsuo, H. Cho, and M. Takemoto, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7, 104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Theobald, P.

R. Chen, P. Theobald, M. Gower, S. Malik, J. Burns, E. Fernandes, G. Bryce, and G. F. Fernando, Proc. SPIE 6932, 693237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

S. Diaz, S. F. Mafang, M. Lopez-Amo, and L. Thévenaz, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tveten, A. B.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vandenplas, S.

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, S. V. Huffel, and D. Inaudi, Proc. SPIE 5855, 1064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, and S. V. Huffel, Proc. SPIE 5391, 72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, X.

Wevers, M.

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, S. V. Huffel, and D. Inaudi, Proc. SPIE 5855, 1064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, and S. V. Huffel, Proc. SPIE 5391, 72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wild, G.

G. Wild and S. Hinckley, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

L. Hang, C. He, and B. Wu, Opt. Eng. 47, 054401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, S.

Xu, H. Y.

Xu, J.

Yang, H.

Ye, C. C.

Yoon, D.

J. Lee, S. Lee, and D. Yoon, J. Opt. A 10, 085307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

J. Zhao, Y. Shi, N. Shan, and X. Yuan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, L.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, X. Bao, W. Li, L. Chen, A. Deif, B. Cousin, and B. Martín-Pérez, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

W. Kuang, S. Y. Dong, M. Zhang, and Y. B. Liao, Proc. SPIE 5577, 678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, Y. Shi, N. Shan, and X. Yuan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Composites, Part A (1)

J. Park, S. Lee, O. Kwon, H. Choi, and J. Lee, Composites, Part A 34, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. Sun, Y. Liang, and F. Ansari, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (3)

S. Diaz, S. F. Mafang, M. Lopez-Amo, and L. Thévenaz, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wild and S. Hinckley, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

J. Lee, S. Lee, and D. Yoon, J. Opt. A 10, 085307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Hang, C. He, and B. Wu, Opt. Eng. 47, 054401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

J. Zhao, Y. Shi, N. Shan, and X. Yuan, Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (5)

C. Zhang, X. Bao, W. Li, L. Chen, A. Deif, B. Cousin, and B. Martín-Pérez, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041T (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, S. V. Huffel, and D. Inaudi, Proc. SPIE 5855, 1064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, P. Theobald, M. Gower, S. Malik, J. Burns, E. Fernandes, G. Bryce, and G. F. Fernando, Proc. SPIE 6932, 693237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Kuang, S. Y. Dong, M. Zhang, and Y. B. Liao, Proc. SPIE 5577, 678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Vandenplas, J. Papy, M. Wevers, and S. V. Huffel, Proc. SPIE 5391, 72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Matsuo, H. Cho, and M. Takemoto, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7, 104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, K. Nagata, Y. Machijima, and F. Matsumura, Smart Mater. Struct. 14, S52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. Rice, R. Duncan, D. Gifford, and B. Childers, in Proceedings of the IEEE Systems Readiness Technology Conference (2003), pp. 505-514.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the proposed fiber-optic intrinsic distributed AE sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detected waveform of the AE at the position L 1 = 0 . (A) and (B) are signals from the two MZ interferometers, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross correlation of the two signals at the position L 1 = 0 . The actual time delay is 100 μ s , and the measured value according to the extremum of the cross correlation is 97 μ s .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured versus actual location ( L 1 ) of AE.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ φ = β Δ L + L Δ β .
I 1 ( t ) = I 1 { 1 + K 1   cos [ Δ φ ( t t 1 ) + φ 0 ] } ,
I 2 ( t ) = I 2 { 1 + K 2   cos [ Δ φ ( t t 2 t 3 ) + φ 0 ] } ,
τ = t 2 + t 3 t 1 .
L 1 = 1 2 ( L c τ / n ) ,
L range = 101 g ( I min / I source ) / α ,
L resolution = c t response / 2 n .

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