Abstract

Kerr spatial solitons are observed in slab chalcogenide waveguides at near-IR wavelengths. Waveguides are realized either by electron-beam evaporation or rf sputtering of a Ge–Sb–S compound deposited on oxidized silicon wafer. The Kerr coefficient of the thin film is evaluated to be 5×1018m2W from the experimentally required soliton power at 1.5μm. Limitations due to material photosensitivity are revealed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Taeed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 15, 14414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sanchez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

B. Luther-Davis and G. I. Stegeman, Spatial Solitons (Springer, 2001).

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, Electron. Lett. 28, 1879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. Barthélémy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J.-L.

Aitchison, J. S.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, Electron. Lett. 28, 1879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Al-hemyari, K.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, Electron. Lett. 28, 1879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Amra, C.

Anne, M.-L.

Anzueto-Sanchez, G.

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sanchez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barthélémy, A.

A. Barthélémy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bohnke, O.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D. A.

Capoulade, J.

Cathelinaud, M.

Charpentier, F.

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.-Y.

Crosignani, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duverger, C.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Elliot, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froehly, C.

A. Barthélémy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Frumar, M.

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. S.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, Electron. Lett. 28, 1879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grasset, F.

Guignard, M.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ho, N.

Inoue, S.

Ironside, C. N.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, Electron. Lett. 28, 1879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sanchez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kudlinski, A.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laniel, J. M.

Lequime, M.

Lhermite, H.

Ljungstrom, A. M.

Luther-Davies, B.

Luther-Davis, B.

B. Luther-Davis and G. I. Stegeman, Spatial Solitons (Springer, 2001).

Madden, S. J.

Maneuf, S.

A. Barthélémy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, G.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

Menyuk, C. R.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Moreac, A.

V. Nazabal, M. Cathelinaud, W. Shen, P. Nemec, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Anne, J. Capoulade, F. Grasset, A. Moreac, S. Inoue, M. Frumar, J.-L. Adam, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, Appl. Opt. 47, C114 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

V. Nazabal, M. Cathelinaud, W. Shen, P. Nemec, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Anne, J. Capoulade, F. Grasset, A. Moreac, S. Inoue, M. Frumar, J.-L. Adam, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, Appl. Opt. 47, C114 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, P.

Pelusi, M. D.

Quiquempois, Y.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

Segev, M.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, W.

Sibbett, W.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, Electron. Lett. 28, 1879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

B. Luther-Davis and G. I. Stegeman, Spatial Solitons (Springer, 2001).

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taeed, V. G.

Torner, L.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Torruellas, W. E.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Valle, R.

VanStryland, E. W.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

Wang, Z.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeghlache, H.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 3284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sanchez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbett, Electron. Lett. 28, 1879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Barthélémy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B. Luther-Davis and G. I. Stegeman, Spatial Solitons (Springer, 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the study of bright Kerr solitons in slab chalcogenide waveguides. CL, collimating lens; λ 2 , half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; L c , cylindrical lens; Obj, microscope objective; 2S1G, slab waveguide; L, lens. The laser source is either a 1.06 μ m Nd:YAG, 700 ps pulse duration microchip laser or a 1.53 μ m , 5 ps amplified fiber laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results showing both soliton beam formation and self-focusing at (a), (b), (c) λ = 1.53 μ m and (d), (e), (f) λ = 1.06 μ m in Ge 25 Sb 10 S 65 and Ge 15 Sb 20 S 65 chalcogenide slab waveguides, respectively. (a), (d) Laser beam profile at the input of the guiding structure. (b), (e) Output beam profile at low power and (c), (f) in the nonlinear regime of propagation at a peak intensity of 1 GW cm 2 . (g) Intensity profiles corresponding to Figs (a)–(c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Slow temporal evolution of the output beam in the nonlinear regime of propagation. These results were obtained at λ = 1.53 μ m . At t = 0 s (not shown), the output beam profile matches the input beam as in Figs. 2a, 2c, 2g.

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