Abstract

We have developed a 3.4μm spectrometer for sub-Doppler resolution molecular absorption spectroscopy. The source is based on the difference frequency generation using a 1.06μm Nd:YAG laser, a 1.55μm distributed-feedback laser diode, and a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate with a conversion efficiency of 9%/W. The generated radiation has a power level of about 300μW, a linewidth of less than 100 kHz, and a continuous tuning range over 10cm1. The spectrometer allows us to observe six saturated absorption lines of C12H4 with 0.3–0.4 MHz width and 1.3%–1.7% depth relative to the corresponding linear absorption lines.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339 (1976).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, Appl. Phys. B 80, 141 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 2771 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. B 94, 517 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. “The HITRAN Database,” Harvard Smithonian Center for Astrophysics, 2004, http://www.hitran.com.
  11. J. C. Hilico, J. P. Champion, S. Toumi, V. G. Tyuterev, and S. A. Tashkun, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 455 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1374 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Shimoda, in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K.Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1976), pp. 11-49.
  14. V. S. Lethokhov, in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K.Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1976), pp. 95-171.

2009 (1)

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. B 94, 517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, Appl. Phys. B 80, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1994 (1)

J. C. Hilico, J. P. Champion, S. Toumi, V. G. Tyuterev, and S. A. Tashkun, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 455 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Anzai, K.

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baklanov, E. V.

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Barger, R. L.

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, C. J.

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Brasmaier, C.

Champion, J. P.

J. C. Hilico, J. P. Champion, S. Toumi, V. G. Tyuterev, and S. A. Tashkun, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 455 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ciaffoni, L.

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. B 94, 517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Natale, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, Appl. Phys. B 80, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, D.

Gagliardi, G.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, Appl. Phys. B 80, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, R.

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. B 94, 517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hancock, G.

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. B 94, 517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hilico, J. C.

J. C. Hilico, J. P. Champion, S. Toumi, V. G. Tyuterev, and S. A. Tashkun, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 455 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kovalchuk, E. V.

Lethokhov, V. S.

V. S. Lethokhov, in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K.Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1976), pp. 95-171.

Lvovsky, A. I.

Maddaloni, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, Appl. Phys. B 80, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magari, K.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malara, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, Appl. Phys. B 80, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malynek, J.

Miyazawa, H.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orr-Ewing, A. J.

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. B 94, 517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peters, A.

Peverall, R.

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. B 94, 517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, G. A. D.

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. B 94, 517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, H.

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Semibalamut, V. M.

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda, in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K.Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1976), pp. 11-49.

Suzuki, H.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

J. C. Hilico, J. P. Champion, S. Toumi, V. G. Tyuterev, and S. A. Tashkun, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 455 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Titov, E. A.

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Toumi, S.

J. C. Hilico, J. P. Champion, S. Toumi, V. G. Tyuterev, and S. A. Tashkun, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 455 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tyuterev, V. G.

J. C. Hilico, J. P. Champion, S. Toumi, V. G. Tyuterev, and S. A. Tashkun, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 455 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, K.

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Umeki, T.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ya Dubetskii, B.

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, T.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, N.

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, Appl. Phys. B 80, 141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. B 94, 517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, T. Umeki, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 44, 288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

J. C. Hilico, J. P. Champion, S. Toumi, V. G. Tyuterev, and S. A. Tashkun, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 455 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

K. Anzai, X. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 45, 2771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1374 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Shimoda, in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K.Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1976), pp. 11-49.

V. S. Lethokhov, in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K.Shimoda, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1976), pp. 95-171.

“The HITRAN Database,” Harvard Smithonian Center for Astrophysics, 2004, http://www.hitran.com.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experiment. DFB, distributed feedback laser diode; I - V , current–voltage converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output power of difference frequency (idler) beam for various waveguide PPLN temperatures. The signal wave is generated by an ECLD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of the P ( 7 ) transition. The upper trace is a Doppler-limited spectrum, and the lower traces are saturated absorption spectra of the A 2 and F 1 ( 1 ) components of the absorption peaks.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Observed Lamb Dips of the P ( 7 ) Transition

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