Abstract

Focus cues play a significant role in three-dimensional (3-D) depth perception. Conventional stereoscopic displays, however, lack the ability to correctly render these cues, because they present a pair of stereoscopic images on a fixed image plane while forcing the eyes to converge at different distances to view objects at different depths. Using a fast liquid-lens device, we present the design and implementation of a time-multiplexed dual-focal plane display that is capable of rendering correct or near-correct focus cues as well as other depth cues, such as occlusion and shading for a 3-D scene. The focus range of the dual focal planes can vary from infinity to as close as 8 diopters. Two driving mechanisms are proposed to render near-correct focus cues and their effects on image sharpness, flicker, and brightness are compared.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, Vision Res. 35, 2731 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Inoue and H. Ohzu, Appl. Opt. 36, 4509 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 8, 1 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Sullivan, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 34, 1531 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. Rolland, M. W. Krueger, and A. Goon, Appl. Opt. 39, 3209 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. B. T. Schowengerdt and E. J. Seibel, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 135 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Liu, D. W. Cheng, and H. Hua, in 7th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR, 2008), pp. 33-42.
  11. http://www.varioptic.com.
  12. O. Jacques-Sermet, Photonics Spectra, November 2007, pp. 60-62.

2008 (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 8, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. T. Schowengerdt and E. J. Seibel, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Sullivan, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 34, 1531 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

J. P. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, Vision Res. 35, 2731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 8, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Banks, M. S.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 8, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, D. W.

S. Liu, D. W. Cheng, and H. Hua, in 7th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR, 2008), pp. 33-42.

Chun, W. S.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dorval, R. K.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ernst, M. O.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Favalora, G. E.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giovinco, M. G.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 8, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goon, A.

Hall, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 8, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hua, H.

S. Liu, D. W. Cheng, and H. Hua, in 7th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR, 2008), pp. 33-42.

Inoue, T.

Jacques-Sermet, O.

O. Jacques-Sermet, Photonics Spectra, November 2007, pp. 60-62.

Krueger, M. W.

Liu, S.

S. Liu, D. W. Cheng, and H. Hua, in 7th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR, 2008), pp. 33-42.

Mon-Williams, M.

J. P. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, Vision Res. 35, 2731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Napoli, J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohzu, H.

Richmond, M. J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J. P.

Rushton, S.

J. P. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, Vision Res. 35, 2731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schowengerdt, B. T.

B. T. Schowengerdt and E. J. Seibel, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seibel, E. J.

B. T. Schowengerdt and E. J. Seibel, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 34, 1531 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wann, J. P.

J. P. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, Vision Res. 35, 2731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watt, S. J.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

ACM Trans. Graphics (1)

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graphics 23, 804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

B. T. Schowengerdt and E. J. Seibel, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision (2)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 8, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (1)

A. Sullivan, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 34, 1531 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

J. P. Wann, S. Rushton, and M. Mon-Williams, Vision Res. 35, 2731 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. Liu, D. W. Cheng, and H. Hua, in 7th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR, 2008), pp. 33-42.

http://www.varioptic.com.

O. Jacques-Sermet, Photonics Spectra, November 2007, pp. 60-62.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (3829 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3922 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic design of a time-multiplexed dual-focal plane display. (b) Simulation of the focal distance versus the applied voltage of the liquid lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Driving mechanism of the liquid lens, (b) dual-state image rendering mechanism, and (c) tri-state image rendering mechanism for a time-multiplexed dual-focal plane display. The right insets show the image frame I of the occluded sphere on the far focal plane and the image frame II of the torus on the near focal plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of the dual-focal plane display (a), (b) with the speed of f = 37.5 Hz (Media 1) and (c), (d) of f = 18.75 Hz (Media 2). The camera was focused at 6 diopters in (a) and (c), and at 1 diopter in (b) and (d). Insets, zoomed-in images at the boundary of the front torus and back sphere.

Equations (1)

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z = R ( u + Δ + u Δ φ ) 2 ( u + Δ + u Δ φ ) + R ( 1 + u φ ) + Δ R R + 2 Δ .

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