Abstract

We investigate manufacturable substrate-type photonic crystal waveguides relying on honeycomb lattice geometry, which shows large photonic bandgaps for TM-polarized light. To the best of our knowledge, air-hole-based photonic crystal slab waveguides with photonic bandgaps for TM-polarized light are experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The results are analyzed with numerical simulations based on the plane-wave expansion and the finite-difference time-domain method. The transmission spectra are measured, and a minimal propagation loss of 1600dBcm of TM modes at λ=1520nm for lattice constant a=590nm is acquired with the cut-back method.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Ishikawa, Ultrafast All-Optical Signal Processing Devices (Wiley, 2008), Chap. 5.
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. M. Kok, E. J. Geluk, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, R. Baets, and M. K. Smit, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2007).
  4. P. Ma, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, Opt. Express 14, 12794 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Strasser, G. Stark, F. Robin, D. Erni, K. Rauscher, R. Wüest, and H. Jäckel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 67 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Wüest, P. Strasser, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3197 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Strasser, R. Wüest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 387 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Strasser, “The development of a fabrication process for passive photonic crystal devices in InP/InGaAsP,” Electrical Engineering Diss. (ETH Zurich, 2008).
  10. D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, G. Kira, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Watanabe, in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR) (2005), paper CTuE1-1, pp. 10-11.

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

P. Strasser, R. Wüest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

R. Wüest, P. Strasser, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Airey, R. J.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

A. A. M. Kok, E. J. Geluk, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, R. Baets, and M. K. Smit, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2007).

Barate, D.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carder, D. A.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cockburn, J. W.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erni, D.

P. Strasser, G. Stark, F. Robin, D. Erni, K. Rauscher, R. Wüest, and H. Jäckel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, R. Wüest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Wüest, P. Strasser, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, R.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, M.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

A. A. M. Kok, E. J. Geluk, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, R. Baets, and M. K. Smit, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2007).

Hopkinson, M.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houdré, R.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, S.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, G. Kira, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Watanabe, in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR) (2005), paper CTuE1-1, pp. 10-11.

Ishikawa, H.

H. Ishikawa, Ultrafast All-Optical Signal Processing Devices (Wiley, 2008), Chap. 5.
[CrossRef]

Jäckel, H.

P. Strasser, G. Stark, F. Robin, D. Erni, K. Rauscher, R. Wüest, and H. Jäckel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, R. Wüest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Ma, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, Opt. Express 14, 12794 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wüest, P. Strasser, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, M.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

A. A. M. Kok, E. J. Geluk, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, R. Baets, and M. K. Smit, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2007).

Kira, G.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, G. Kira, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Watanabe, in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR) (2005), paper CTuE1-1, pp. 10-11.

Kok, A. A. M.

A. A. M. Kok, E. J. Geluk, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, R. Baets, and M. K. Smit, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2007).

Kolodziejski, L. A.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, G. Kira, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Watanabe, in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR) (2005), paper CTuE1-1, pp. 10-11.

Leuenberger, D.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, P.

Mitsugi, S.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, G. Kira, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Watanabe, in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR) (2005), paper CTuE1-1, pp. 10-11.

Moosburger, J.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mulot, M.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, G. Kira, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Watanabe, in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR) (2005), paper CTuE1-1, pp. 10-11.

Qiu, M.

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramunno, L.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, G. Kira, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Watanabe, in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR) (2005), paper CTuE1-1, pp. 10-11.

Rauscher, K.

Revin, D. G.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robin, F.

P. Strasser, G. Stark, F. Robin, D. Erni, K. Rauscher, R. Wüest, and H. Jäckel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, R. Wüest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Ma, F. Robin, and H. Jäckel, Opt. Express 14, 12794 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wüest, P. Strasser, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rouillard, Y.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, G. Kira, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Watanabe, in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR) (2005), paper CTuE1-1, pp. 10-11.

Sirtori, C.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

A. A. M. Kok, E. J. Geluk, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, R. Baets, and M. K. Smit, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2007).

Stark, G.

Steer, M. J.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, P.

P. Strasser, G. Stark, F. Robin, D. Erni, K. Rauscher, R. Wüest, and H. Jäckel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, R. Wüest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Wüest, P. Strasser, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, “The development of a fabrication process for passive photonic crystal devices in InP/InGaAsP,” Electrical Engineering Diss. (ETH Zurich, 2008).

van der Tol, J. J. G. M.

A. A. M. Kok, E. J. Geluk, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, R. Baets, and M. K. Smit, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2007).

Vicet, A.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, G. Kira, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Watanabe, in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR) (2005), paper CTuE1-1, pp. 10-11.

Wilson, L. R.

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wüest, R.

P. Strasser, G. Stark, F. Robin, D. Erni, K. Rauscher, R. Wüest, and H. Jäckel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, R. Wüest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Wüest, P. Strasser, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, D. A. Carder, J. W. Cockburn, M. J. Steer, M. Hopkinson, R. J. Airey, M. Garcia, C. Sirtori, Y. Rouillard, D. Barate, and A. Vicet, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

R. Wüest, P. Strasser, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 3197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, R. Wüest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jäckel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. A. M. Kok, E. J. Geluk, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, F. Karouta, R. Baets, and M. K. Smit, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2007).

H. Ishikawa, Ultrafast All-Optical Signal Processing Devices (Wiley, 2008), Chap. 5.
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, “The development of a fabrication process for passive photonic crystal devices in InP/InGaAsP,” Electrical Engineering Diss. (ETH Zurich, 2008).

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, G. Kira, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Watanabe, in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR) (2005), paper CTuE1-1, pp. 10-11.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Band diagrams of TM modes simulated in both 2D and 3D for bulk PhCs based on honeycomb lattice geometry in normalized frequency and wavevector units, the definition of honeycomb PhC lattice (left inset), and a sketch of slab structure (right inset). The dot diameter represents the fraction of time-average electric field energy confined to the core layer. (b) Simulated projected band diagram and the normalized transmission spectra in 2D for the proposed PhC WG for TM modes. K’ is the boundary of the first Brillouin zone in the project lattice.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of the input region of a fabricated PhC WG together with an access-trench WG ( a = 590 nm , r a = 0.23 , scale applied) (left inset, cross-section view of part of 5- μ m -wide access trench WG etched down to 3.7 μ m with a InGaAsP core shown in light gray; right inset, a top overview of the PhC WG together with the reference 5- μ m -wide WG). (b) Measured (thick-dotted curve, raw data, including the short access taper structures), and calculated 3D FDTD (with ideal cylinder holes of finite depth, solid curve) transmission spectra for TM-polarized light through PhC WG.

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