Abstract

We report on a Si3N4-based surface-passivation technique for increasing free-carrier lifetimes in submicrometer silicon-on-insulator waveguides by up to 2 orders of magnitude. The carrier lifetime was measured by injecting free carriers into a critically coupled ring resonator through photoexcitation by short pump pulses and subsequently tracking the spectral detuning of the resonator during the carrier-recombination phase. Carrier lifetimes of up to 70ns were obtained in waveguides passivated with a 45-nm-thick Si3N4 coating. Such surface passivation is essential for low-power operation of optical switches based on carrier injection.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 16659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Först, J. Niehusmann, T. Plötzing, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 32, 2046 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. J. Kerr and A. Cuevas, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 17, 35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Schmidt, M. Kerr, and A. Cuevas, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Stoffel, A. Kovacs, W. Kronast, and B. Muller, J. Micromech. Microeng. 6, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Inukai and K. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 33, 2593 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, S.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennet, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

Borselli, M.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, A.

M. J. Kerr and A. Cuevas, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 17, 35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidt, M. Kerr, and A. Cuevas, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Först, M.

Gan, F.

Grawert, F. J.

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henry, M. D.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inukai, T.

T. Inukai and K. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 33, 2593 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jhaveri, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. J.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kerr, M.

J. Schmidt, M. Kerr, and A. Cuevas, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, M. J.

M. J. Kerr and A. Cuevas, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 17, 35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kovacs, A.

A. Stoffel, A. Kovacs, W. Kronast, and B. Muller, J. Micromech. Microeng. 6, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kronast, W.

A. Stoffel, A. Kovacs, W. Kronast, and B. Muller, J. Micromech. Microeng. 6, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lipson, M.

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 16659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael, C. P.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Moormann, C.

Muller, B.

A. Stoffel, A. Kovacs, W. Kronast, and B. Muller, J. Micromech. Microeng. 6, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Niehusmann, J.

Ono, K.

T. Inukai and K. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 33, 2593 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 16659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plötzing, T.

Preston, K.

Robinson, J. T.

Schley, J.-M.

Schmidt, J.

J. Schmidt, M. Kerr, and A. Cuevas, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stoffel, A.

A. Stoffel, A. Kovacs, W. Kronast, and B. Muller, J. Micromech. Microeng. 6, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

Wahlbrink, T.

Woo, J. C. S.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, M. D. Henry, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. Stoffel, A. Kovacs, W. Kronast, and B. Muller, J. Micromech. Microeng. 6, 1 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

T. Inukai and K. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 33, 2593 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. J. Kerr and A. Cuevas, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 17, 35 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidt, M. Kerr, and A. Cuevas, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of a 700-nm-wide SOI wire with an 85-nm-thick Si 3 N 4 coating. The scale bar is 200 nm long. (b) Measurement setup. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculated transmission spectrum at the through port of a critically coupled ring, in the unperturbed state ( N = 0 , thin solid line) and for N = 0.3 to 1.1 × 10 18 cm 3 (right to left). (b) Calculated transmission versus time at the through port for a probe-wavelength detuning Δ λ p = 0.9 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fitted and (b) measured transmission waveforms for a Si 3 N 4 -passivated ring resonator, for probe-wavelengths detuned in the range 1.4 to 1.1 nm . (c) Measured time-dependent blueshift of the same Si 3 N 4 -passivated ring resonator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Carrier lifetime versus waveguide width for the Si 3 N 4 -passivated waveguides and the air-clad reference waveguide, and fitted surface-recombination velocities.

Equations (1)

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Δ λ r ( t ) = λ r n g Γ Δ n Si [ N ( t ) ] ,

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