Abstract

Fiber-optic reflectance measurements were performed on scattering phantoms containing red blood cells. The oxygen pressure in the phantom was decreased by nitrogen gas bubbling, while carefully controlling and monitoring the temperature (37°C) and pH (7.4). The blood oxygen saturation (SO2) was extracted from the optical spectroscopic measurements by fitting the spectra over the wavelength range of 350850   nm to a model that includes the effects of pigment packaging. The effect of using different oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin extinction spectra on the quality and accuracy of the fits is analyzed. The optically extracted SO2 is compared with the standard oxygen dissociation curve (ODC). Depending on the choice of hemoglobin extinction spectra the absolute deviation between the ODC and the optically extracted SO2 is less than 2.5% over the measured range of saturations (4%–99%).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054044 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, Oral Oncol. 44, 65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 45, 1062 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

1992

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1988

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 933, 184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

S. Takatani, and M. D. Graham, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26, 656 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. W. Severinghaus, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir., Environ. Exercise Physiol. 46, 599 (1979).

A'Amar, O.

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054044 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, Oral Oncol. 44, 65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Appl. Opt. 43, 3048 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, M. P. L. Bard, J. A. Burgers and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Opt. Lett. 29, 1087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bard, M. P. L.

Bigio, I. J.

Burgers, J. A.

Buursma, A.

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, and O. W. van Assendelft, Visible and Near Infrared Absorption Spectra of Human and Animal Haemoglobin (VSP BV, 2000).

Cope, M.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 933, 184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 933, 184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, Med. Phys. 31, 1949 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, Med. Phys. 31, 1949 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friebel, M.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graham, M. D.

S. Takatani, and M. D. Graham, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26, 656 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kanick, S. C.

S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaspers, O. P.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, Oral Oncol. 44, 65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meinke, M.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moes, C. J. M.

Muller, G.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, G. M.

Patterson, M. S.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

Ramanujam, N.

Reif, R.

Reynolds, E. O. R.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 933, 184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, D. J.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054044 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roggan, A.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roodenburg, J. L.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, Oral Oncol. 44, 65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Severinghaus, J. W.

J. W. Severinghaus, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir., Environ. Exercise Physiol. 46, 599 (1979).

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054044 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, Oral Oncol. 44, 65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Appl. Opt. 43, 3048 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, M. P. L. Bard, J. A. Burgers and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Opt. Lett. 29, 1087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takatani, S.

S. Takatani, and M. D. Graham, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26, 656 (1987).
[CrossRef]

van Assendelft, O. W.

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, and O. W. van Assendelft, Visible and Near Infrared Absorption Spectra of Human and Animal Haemoglobin (VSP BV, 2000).

O. W. van Assendelft, Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives (Royal Van Gorcum Ltd., 1970).

van der Wal, J. E.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, Oral Oncol. 44, 65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Staveren, H. J.

Wilson, B. C.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witjes, M. J. H.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, Oral Oncol. 44, 65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wray, S.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 933, 184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 933, 184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zijlstra, W. G.

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, and O. W. van Assendelft, Visible and Near Infrared Absorption Spectra of Human and Animal Haemoglobin (VSP BV, 2000).

Appl. Opt.

Biochem. Biophys. Acta.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 933, 184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

S. Takatani, and M. D. Graham, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26, 656 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir., Environ. Exercise Physiol.

J. W. Severinghaus, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir., Environ. Exercise Physiol. 46, 599 (1979).

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054044 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Kanick, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, Med. Phys. 31, 1949 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Oral Oncol.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, Oral Oncol. 44, 65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, and O. W. van Assendelft, Visible and Near Infrared Absorption Spectra of Human and Animal Haemoglobin (VSP BV, 2000).

S. A. Prahl, http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin, retrieved September 2008.

O. W. van Assendelft, Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives (Royal Van Gorcum Ltd., 1970).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DPS spectra, fits, and residuals (×2) for (a) oxygenated and (b) deoxygenated samples, using the extinction spectra from set 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fitted S O 2 as a function of p O 2 using set 1 (squares) and set 2 (dots) extinction spectra, along with the ODC (solid curve). The inset shows the optically measured S O 2 versus true S O 2 according to the ODC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DPS spectra, fits, and residuals (×2) for (a) oxygenated and (b) deoxygenated samples, using the extinction spectra from set 2.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R blood ( λ ) = ( 0.975 R 0 ( λ ) + a 0 + a 1 ( λ 800 ) + a 2 ( λ 800 ) 2 ) exp [ L μ a ( λ ) ] .
L = d fiber ( 1 + ( μ s ( λ ) d fiber ) 0.53 ) ( 1 + ( μ a ( λ ) d fiber ) 0.53 ) .
μ a ( λ ) = a 3 a 4 μ a Hb O 2 ( λ ) + ( 1 a 4 ) μ a Hb ( λ ) C cor ( λ ) .

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